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Light Tank MK VI
The Light Tank Mark VI was the most numerically important light tank to see service with the British Army, with 1,682 produced in four versions between 1935 and 1940. The basic Mark VI was very similar to the Mark V, but with extra space in the turret to hold the No.7 Wireless Set, which had a range of about ten miles and was a great improvement on the No.1 Wireless. A circulating pump was added to the header tank for the water cooling system for the two machine guns. A new clutch was installed, but otherwise the engine, transmission and general layout remained the same. The maximum thickness of armour was increased to 15mm from 12mm. The increase in weight meant that the Mark VI had a better ride than any earlier entry in the light tank series.
Light Tank Mark VIA
Three main changes were introduced on the Light Tank Mark VIA. On the Mark V and Mark VI the single return roller had been attached to the front bogie, and the rear part of the track had rested on the rear bogie. On the Mark VIA the return roller was mounted on the hull, between and above the two bogies, lifting the rear part of the track off the back wheels. This helped to solve a problem that had seen the rear part of the track pick up vibrations from the ground and sometimes come off the wheels. The circular commander's cupola on the Mark VI was replaced with a octagonal model with two lookout slots in the front. The Meadows ESTL engine of the Mark VI was replaced by a Meadows ESTB.
Light Tank Mark VIB
The Mark VIB was produced in larger numbers than any other version of the tank, and was the version that saw most combat during the Second World War. It was very similar to the Mark VIA, but reverted to the circular cupola of the Mark VI, although with the two glass block lookouts of the Mark VIA. The number of armoured cooling louvres over the radiator was reduced from two to one. During 1940 six Mark VIBs were given rear idler wheels, as used on the earlier Mark II and Mark III. Tests with the 1st Armoured Division in France showed that this greatly improved the cross-country performance and smoothness of the ride, but a few months later the German campaign in the west proved that the light tank was no longer of any real use, and this modification was never adopted. The Mark VIB was also produced in an India pattern, without the cupola but with a periscope for the commander.
Light Tank Mark VIC
The Light Tank Mark VIC resembled the India pattern Mark VIB, with no cupola and a periscope mounted on the roof. The Vickers machine guns used on all earlier British light tanks were replaced with two Besa air cooled machine guns, one 7.92mm and one 15mm, adopted by a Czech design. These were the first guns in the British Army to use rimless cases instead of rimmed cartridges, and were adopted as the standard gun for the Royal Armoured Corps. The 7.92mm gun was a success, and remained in service on British tanks until 1958, but the 15mm gun was less reliable and less accurate than the Vickers gun, and was soon replaced. The Mk VIC had a wider track and suspension wheels, reducing the ground pressure.
The Light Tank Mk VI made up a large proportion of the British tank force in France in 1940, equipping four regular and three Territorial divisional cavalry regiments and accounting for 108 of the 321 tanks in the 1st Armoured Division. When the light tank had originally been introduced into the British Army, the War Office believed that tanks would rarely fight other tanks, and at worst British light tanks would have to deal with enemy light tanks, both acting as scouts ahead of the main tank forces. This was quickly proved to be false in France in 1940, where the under-armed and under-armoured light tanks soon found themselves coming up against the main German tank forces.
The most common German tank in 1940 was actually the Panzer II, which had similar armour to the Mark VI, and didn't outgun it by much, carrying a 20mm gun, and was the sort of enemy light tank that the Mark VI was expected to face. Unfortunately it also had to cope with the Panzer III, with either a 3.7cm or 5cm gun, and captured Czech Panzer 38(t)s, and these more heavily armed tanks inflicted heavy losses on the thin skinned British tanks.
The Light Tank Mark VI was also used by the Heavy Brigade of the Mobile Division in Egypt (later to become the 7th Armoured Division, or Desert Rats), arriving in 1939. By September 1940 there were two armoured brigades, each with three regiments, all of which were equipped with some Mark VIs during the fighting in 1940. Once again the light tanks were overwhelmed by their more heavily armed German and Italian opponents, and suffered heavy losses. Much to the relief of their crews the Mark VI was replaced by the American Stuart Tank during 1941.
Light Tank Mk VI
VI: 51 (1935)
VIA: 210 (1936)
VIB: 914 (1936-38)
Plus another 173 of Mk VI to Mk VIB from September to December 1939
VIC: 334 (1939-40)
Hull Length: 13ft 2in
Hull Width: 6ft 10in
Height: 7ft 5in
Weight: 4.8 tons (VI and VIA), 5.2 tons (VIB and VIC)
Engine: Meadows six cylinder 88bhp
Max Speed: 35mph
Max Range: 125 miles operational radius
Armament: One .303 and one .5 Vickers Machine Gun (VI, VIA and VIB); One 7.92mm and one 15mm Besa machine gun (VIC)
M5 Stuart (Light Tank, M5) (Stuart VI)
Authored By: Staff Writer | Last Edited: 10/17/2018 | Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com | The following text is exclusive to this site.
The M5 "Stuart" (also "General Stuart") was an extension of the original M3 Stuart Light Tank line of 1941 and brought about by the American military relocation of vital war-making supplies - namely the Continental aero engine used in the M3. This initiative begat a modified Stuart light tank initially known as the "M4" though later changed to "M5" to differentiate it from the classic M4 Sherman medium tank. The British Army continued naming their American tanks and the M5 was known as "Stuart VI" (the M3A3 was the "Stuart V").
As completed, the M5 now showcased a paired set of Cadillac V8 296-horsepower automobile engines which forced a reworking of the engine deck at the rear of the hull. The engines were coupled to individual Hydra-Matic transmission systems running through a 2-speed transfer case and provided improved running performance and noise reduction over the original Continental installation. A new front hull design, based on the M3A3 Stuart, was implemented and brought about improved frontal ballistics protection. The lack of a frontal vertical face on the new hull superstructure ended with the driver's hatch relocated to the hull roof. The new tank retained the same 37mm M6 main gun as the M3 which gave good service against light-armored vehicles, light fortifications and enemy infantry (the latter when using High-Explosive (HE) projectiles). Defense was through a coaxial 0.30 Browning machine gun as well as a bow-mounted machine gun at front-right. The resulting changes produced a much roomier interior in the M5 when compared to the M3 before it. Its crew numbered four - driver, commander, gunner and bow machine gunner/radio operator.
After adoption by the U.S. Army and serial production beginning through General Motors (Cadillac Division Detroit) in April of 1942, the M5 Stuart began the slow process of replacing in-service M3 Stuarts across the various American theaters. Additional manufacture came from Massey Harris, an agricultural machinery producer, and from Southern California factories by August. Production completed in December with a total initial run of 2,074 M5 vehicles.
In time, an improvement was taken on and this became the "M5A1". A larger turret was installed that was similar to the one in use with the M3A3. An optional 0.30 caliber Browning Anti-Aircraft (AA) gun was fitted to the exterior turret side though this required an exposed crewmember to operate. The existing assembly lines were then ordered to produce the new mark and American Car and Foundry was added to help bring about a total stock of 6,810 M5A1s by the middle of 1944. American Car and Foundry was also charged with modifying a stock of 775 existing M5A1s to new, late-war standards. A shielded 0.30 caliber machine gun position was eventually introduced in M5A1 production which protected the operator to a degree.
The M5 line served in a frontline role as the primary American light tank until 1944 to which it was, itself, replaced by the newer M24 "Chaffee" Light Tank. M5 Light Tanks operated primarily in the Pacific and Burmese theaters where Japanese armor was comparable and its anti-weaponry was not as potent as what was seen with the Germans in Africa and Europe. It was during the 1943 Battle of Kasserine Pass that showcased the critical tactical limitations of light tank battalions for the U.S. Army. This led to their disbanding and reforming with medium tank companies while being used primarily in the armed scouting / reconnaissance role. Medium tanks would handle enemy tanks directly.
Variants of the M5 proved plenty during the war years. Marks included a command tank form with increased communications equipment and a turret-less reconnaissance model armed solely with a 0.50 caliber heavy machine gun - brought about under the "T8" designation. Flame tanks were also developed which installed a flame gun in place of the machine gun. A turret-less M5A1 formed the basis of the "M5 Dozer" which saw a dozer blade fitted for engineering work. The 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M8 was an Self-Propelled Artillery (SPA) system built atop the M5 chassis and outfitted with the 75mm M2/M3 howitzer. 1,778 examples of this type were ultimately produced. Similarly, the 75mm Howitzer Motor Carriage M8A1 followed suit though atop the M5A1 chassis. The T82 was a proposed howitzer-carrying vehicle managing a 105mm weapon though this initiative was given up in 1945. Another abandoned M5A1 offshoot was the T27/T27E1 development which mated a turret-less M5A1 with an 81mm mortar. This project too was abandoned - though in April of 1944.
Post-war use of M5s included combat service by both India and Pakistan during the 1947 Independence War. Other known operators went on to include Brazil and Haiti.
The Light Tank
Dinky 152a Light Tank
L64xW34xH36, Metal 76g, Scale 1:60, Features: 2
The model is in most respects similar to the 1950s classics. The main parts are a mazak hull and turret, the latter able to rotate on the former. Into the turret is inserted a stiff rod to represent a radio aerial. Detail is captured nicely on the surfaces, including prominent lines of rivets which, although oversized, impart a feeling for the simple early construction methods employed on these vehicles.
The running gear is worthy of attention. The road wheels are cast as part of the hull, but nicely done with good detail, and flattened at the bottom so that they appear to be sitting with some weight on the tracks. The drive sprocket and rearmost wheel are separate castings, fitted onto axles fore and rear, with teeth that grip the tracks. The tracks are simple metal chains, which, like the rivets, are not strictly accurate but nevertheless look the part and, if the tension is correct, sag convincingly like the real thing. Not only do these tracks look good, but they work – push the vehicle and the drive sprocket turns the tracks so that the vehicle moves forwards.
Underneath the model is a metal baseplate with the following embossed on it:
“DINKY TOYS”, “MADE IN ENGLAND” & “BY MECCANO LTD”.
There is no mention of the model name or number, and the baseplate is sprung within the lower hull, secured without the later method of passing spigots from the hull through holes and then flattening the heads.
The baseplate of the Light Tank.
The black paint on the baseplate indicates that this model was produced after 1947, at which time in history the model must have looked very old-fashioned.
The model is painted army green overall, and has no other markings or transfers. It’s an accurate and detailed model, and makes an interesting comparison to the Centurion tank made 20 years later. The model itself stands up well by comparison, especially when we consider the way that the running gear on the Centurion was handled (see that story here)… Compared to the Centurion, the Light Tank is a tiny vehicle, which prompts a question – how could the Light Tank ever have been an effective weapon of war?
Light Tank MK VI - History
Working on cranes at the Elswick Works 1929
Carden-Loyd Tankietka Tankett 1929
Firing trial of 21 inch Triple Deck Torpedo Tubes. Powder Impulse for Argentine Destroyers 1929
Firing trial of 21 inch Triple Deck Torpedo Tubes. Powder Impulse for Argentine Destroyers 1929
Carden-Loyd Carriers at the Elswick Works 1930
Carden-Loyd Tankette at the Elswick Works 1930
Vickers 6-ton Light Tank - Type A (two turrets, each mounting a Vickers machine gun) 1930
Armoured cars outside the Elswick Works 1931
1932 Elswick - View of an amphibious tank on the River Tyne, c1932
Vickers Light Dragon Mk II Tracked Artillery Transport Vehicle 1932
Cruiser Tank Mk II (A10) designed by Sir John Carden 1934
King George VI and Queen Elizabeth at the launch of HMS “King George V”, 21st February 1939
The Vickers Light Tank Mark II (India Pattern) 1940
Vickers Valentine tanks on route to Russia 28th September 1941
Canadian built Valentine Mark VI Tank (1941) at Canadian Forces Base (CFB) Borden Military Museum
Royal Visit by King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, 18th June 1941
Worker machining a 500 lb bomb at the Elswick Works, Newcastle upon Tyne, November 1941
Gauging 4.2 inch trench mortar bombs in the Shell Department 2nd December 1942
Female munitions workers inspecting 25 Pdr shells at Northumberland Road 20th November 1942
Women workers fitting breech blocks in 5 Shop, Elswick Works 2nd December 1942
1942 View of guns under construction in 5 Shop 27th July 1942. Includes 5.118 inch guns for Russia and 4" guns for the Admiralty
Valentine Tanks on the Assembly Line 1942
1942 View of a 6-pdr. Valentine Tank on a truck ready for delivery, inside the Tank Shop 21st September 1942
1942 Elswick - Valentine Tank being lowered on to its track in the Tank Shop 21st September 1942
Vickers Armstrong Universal Carrier modified to mount a 2-Pdr anti-tank gun 1943
Grand Slam Bombs awaiting delivery, 7th January 1945
Printing press in 11 Shop September 1946
Aerial View of Elswick 1947
New Tractor at the Elswick Works, 24th October 1949
FV222 Conqueror MkII Armoured Recovery Vehicle at Elswick 1961
Delivery of a 50-ton rudder from Walker Naval Yard to the Elswick Works 30th April 1964
So there are many complex and varying accounts by historians. Personally, I am somewhat skeptical that we will ever know the whole truth and believe the battle will remain the “stuff of legends.” One thing, however, is very clear: the advance of theFourth Panzer Army was slowed dramatically due to the Panzer Corps’ failure to take Prochorovka on 12 July, regardless of both the number of tanks possessed by the Germans or Soviets and the misuse of German panzer reserves.
When Hitler abandoned Operation Citadel on 13 July, the Germans’ last opportunity to influence events on a strategic level in the East was lost.
A Tiger tank of the SS division “Das Reich” in action – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Operation Citadel, soldiers of Waffen-SS division “Das Reich” in front of a Tiger tank. – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 German Soldiers in front of a destroyed Russian Pz.Kpfw. KW-1A – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Soviet Union – “Operation Citadel” – fighting in the area Belgorod-Orel – Waffen SS Division “Das Reich”, crew during a stop in front of their Panzer III – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Waffen SS soldiers having a discussion with a Panzer Mk VI Tiger commander. – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Belgorod – Self-propelled guns (Stugs), Panzer Mk III and Mk IV tanks are assembling and getting ready for operation Citadel – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Near Pokrovka, German Motorcycle troops take cover near their vehicles – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Generalmajor v. Hünersdorff at operation Citadel – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Near Pokrovka, German motorized troops on the left and a light (20mm) FLAK gun mounted on half track on the right. – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Vehicles advancing during operation Citadel – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 FLAK Vierling gun firing during operation Citadel – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 German Soldiers on a Panzer Mk VI Tiger with turret number 123 – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Looking down the barrel of a Panzer MK VI Tiger tank during operation Citadel – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Operation Citadel, a Panzer Mk VI Tiger is being towed by an 18-ton FAMO – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Two Panzer Mk VI Tiger tanks, a destroyed vehicle and a German on a horse – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Operation Citadel, Panzer MK III with turret number 943 and in the foreground a Panzer MK II with turret number 914 – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Near Pokrovka, a group of light field howitzers mounted on Panzer Mk II chassis, know as the Wespe or Sd.Kfz. 124 in a field near the frontline. – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 New shells are being loaded on a Panzer Mk VI Tiger – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Loading of new shells in a Panzer Mk VI Tiger tank – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Panzerjäger Marder III Ausf. H (Sd. Kfz. 138) – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Tiger 123, 1st Company sPzabt.503 – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Waffen SS soldiers in their vehicles, a Stug(?) and an armored half-track – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Waffen SS soldiers on a Stug, followed by two Panzer MK VI Tiger tanks drive to the startline of operation Citadel – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 Operation Citadel a Marder III 7,62cm Pak on the chassis of a Czech 38(t). – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0 South of Orel, Panzer Mk VI Tiger tanks attack, in the background a building burns – By Bundesarchiv – CC BY-SA 3.0
Post Second World War
In 1945 Canada left almost all its wartime vehicles in Europe rather than paying to ship them back to Canada. What little armour Canada retained was a mixture of wartime Achilles tank-destroyers as well as Grizzly and Stuart tanks.
In 1946 the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps was equipped with 300 M4A2 76mm (W) HVSS Shermans, which were purchased from the United States at a cost of $1,460.00 each. They were used for training only. The M4A2 76mm (W) HVSS. The (W) referred to "wet" stowage for the ammunition, the HVSS refers to Horizontal Volute Spring Suspension, a type of suspension adopted during the war by the Americans, whose earlier Sherman models - like the Ram - had Vertical Volute Spring Suspension.
Reserve units were also to use the Staghound armoured car.
While officially policy since 1943 was to use North American manufactured vehicles as much as possible in the Canadian Army, the British Centurion so impressed the Canadians that it was adopted in 1952, receiving 274 Centurion Mark 3 tanks in 1952-53.
One squadron of tanks was employed in Korea. At first it was anticipated that M10 Achilles Tank Destroyers would be used, but these were exchanged for the M4A3(76)W HVSS Sherman, also supplied by the United States. This American designed tank was used by the three successive squadrons of Lord Strathcona's Horse to serve with the 25th Canadian Brigade during hostilities. The Centurions went to Canadian units in West Germany beginning in March 1952, and to units in Canada.
Sherman M4A2 76mm (W) HVSS
The US produced 2,915 M4A2 Shermans between May 1944 and May 1945, intended for export to the Soviet Union under Lend-Lease, until the end of the war in Europe halted the program. Some 49,243 of all Sherman types had been built during the war, and used by many of the Allied nations.
The regular army used the vehicles until the Centurions was adopted, and the Shermans were handed down to the Militia who used them until 1970. Many became range targets, and several have become monuments (sometimes referred to as "gate guards".)
M4A3(76) HVSS with markings of "C" Squadron, Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians) on turret, as it would have appeared in Korea.
M4A2 76mm (W) HVSS with markings of "A" Squadron, Fort Garry Horse (Militia) as used in Canada for training
the regimental name was for recruiting rather than tactical purposes.
Part of the planned Americanization of Canadian weapons and equipment after the Second World War centred on finding a new medium tank to replace the fleet of Shermans that had been left in The Netherlands. Canada was using a mixture of Achilles tank destroyers, M4A2 HVSS 76(W) Shermans, Grizzlies, and Stuart light tanks and Staghound armoured cars for training. Experience in the Korean War showed a need for better tanks than the Americans had on inventory even the new Patton tank was at that time having a troubled production history. In Korea, however, the fire control system and gun of the Centurion proved its worth, and Canada took delivery of 274 Mark 3 Centurions in 1952 and 1953. The planned policy of using only North American equipment had already been derailed by the Korean War and the need to equip the infantry from war stocks of Lee Enfields, Bren Guns and Sten Guns.
The first 21 Centurions reached the Royal Canadian Dragoons in Germany in March 1952 and serving with Canada's NATO forces there. No Canadian Centurions made it to Korea, and the tanks were used in Canada and Europe through the 1960s and into the 1970s. The new tank was well liked, having a .50 calibre ranging gun in the turret to assist in determining the range to main gun targets. The sophisticated optics and ammunition types, however, provided a challenge to new gunners as each of the different ammunition types (sabot, High Explosive Squash Head (HESH), smoke and canister) all had differing muzzle velocities. The .30 and .50 calibre guns fired rounds on about the same trajectory as the HESH round other rounds had to have the main gun adjusted according to muzzle velocity of the ammunition, as well as range, in order to ensure a hit on the target.
The Centurion Mark 3 was quickly upgraded into a variety of configurations.
|Initial Configuration||Modification||New Designation||Number modified|
|Mark 3||Addition of .30 calibre Browning MG in place of Besa MG in coaxial mount.||Mark 5||all|
|Mark 5||Up-armouring of glacis armour.||Mark 5/1||Some tanks, chiefly those in Europe.|
|Mark 5||Upgunning main armament from 20-lber to L7 105mm gun.||Mark 5/2||Only a few tanks were so modified to have both the Browning coax and L7. This was begun in 1962.|
|Mark 5||Upgunned and uparmoured.||Mark 6||Some in Europe and in Canada became Mark 6 when upgunned to L7, as uparmouring had already also been done.|
|Mark 6||Infrared sights and lighting added.||Mark 6/1||Begun in 1965 included all Centurions in 4th Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group in West Germany, five at Gagetown, five at Sarcee, five at the RCAC school at Gagetown, and one tank at Land Engineering Test Establishment.|
|Mark 6||Addition of .50 calibre ranging gun.||Mark 6/2||This work was done simultaneously with upgrade to Mark 6/1.|
|Mark 6||Infrared sights and .50 ranging gun.||Mark 11||Only Centurions based in Germany were to be upgraded to Mark 11 configuration there is evidence to suggest that nine Mark 11 tanks served at Gagetown with the 8th Canadian Hussars also.|
Centurion Mark 5/2 (L7 105mm Main Armament)
In August 1971, according to Don Dingwall's book The Centurion in Canadian Service, the national inventory was:
By 1975, the once state-of-the-art tank was beginning to show its age, though as late as 1975 Canadian gunners could still outscore other tank types by considerable margins in exercises. The unsynchronized gearbox was also tricky for drivers to master, and faulty shifting could leave the 55 ton tanks rolling free in neutral on downward slopes, a condition nicknamed "Mexican Overdrive." 6
The Centurions were used, with several life extension schemes, until 2 June 1977 when the Royal Canadian Dragoons in Lahr, West Germany held a final parade with the vehicles. Some Centurions continued in service in Canada until 1979, until replacement tanks (the Leopard) were received.
Centurions of the Royal Canadian Dragoons. Photos courtesy RCD Archives & Collection.
After the Sherman tanks were withdrawn from Militia armoured regiments in the early 1970s, they had no AFVs to train on in their home garrisons until the arrival of the Armoured Vehicle, General Purpose (AVGP) in 1976. The Cougar was just one model of AVGP to see service in Canada it was designated a "tank trainer" (though later would be sent on operations dubbed a "fire support vehicle") and issued to Militia units and also Regular Force armoured units.
The vehicle was armed with a 76mm gun capable of firing a variety of munitions, as well as a co-axial C6 Machine Gun.
Cougar AVGPs of the Royal Canadian Dragoons.
Photo courtesy Trooper K. Langille, RCD Archives and Collection.
The Leopard 1 main battle tank was developed by Germany in the 1960s. Canada purchased 127 Leopard 1A3 tanks (built by Krauss-Maffei Wehrtechnik GmbH) in 1979, the bulk of which were stationed in West Germany until Canada's withdrawal from Europe after the Cold War ended.
The tank had a fully stabilized 105mm gun capable of firing while the vehicle was moving. The Leopard also has a 7.62mm C-6 MG mounted co-axially, a C-6 on the turret roof for anti-aircraft defence, and smoke dischargers.
The Canadian Forces upgraded the 1A3 with add-on armour plating.
Leopard C1 tanks came from the factory in special infra-red defeating paint.
Leopard C2 (1994)
The Leopard C1 retrofitted with a German Leopard 1A5 turret with improved (thermal) sights, as well as composite add-on armour, was known as the Leopard C2. The thermal sights allowed for operation at night and in battlefield visibility conditions obscured by smoke, dust or fog. The upgrading of the Leopards into C2 configuration began in 1994 and was completed in September 2001 at a cost of $139 million.
A number of desired upgrades proved too costly (at $400 million) such as improved firepower, armour protection, and electric turret drive. The thermal sight and digital fire control system took priority the most effective way to achieve this was to replace 114 C1 turrets with surplus German Leopard 1A5 turrets, which already had the thermal sights and fire control systems in place.
The new turrets were reconditioned in Germany, fitted with Canadian specific components such as an Iris communication system, external stowage baskets, and an internal spall liner. The turrets were installed at Miramichi, New Brunswick and the vehicles were then commissioned at CFB Gagetown. Nine spare turrets were acquired for spare parts, test equipment and use as training aids.
According to an article by Lieutenant Colonel Luc Petit in Volume 4, Number 34 of the Maple Leaf:
In addition, the project has provided appropriate integrated logistics support (ILS), including spare parts, tools and test equipment, publications, documentation, training and 18 Leopard Crew Gunnery Trainers. These state-of-the-art gunnery simulators allow units to perform individual and troop training much more efficiently than with the old Laser miniature ranges. The Armour School has received six simulators and the armoured regiments each received four.
Leopard C1 photographed at CFB Borden. Wikipedia Photo.
Comparative Data: Postwar Tanks
|Type||Length (hull)||Width||Height||Weight||Suspension||Main Armament||Secondary Armament||Armour||Max. Speed||Crew|
|6.09 m||2.63 m||2.92 m||36.7 tons||HVSS||76 mm||2 x .30 cal MG|
Malli oli kuudes Vickers-Armstrongin Yhdistyneen kuningaskunnan maavoimille sotienvälillä valmistama kevyt panssarivaunu. Yhtiö oli kyennyt viiden edellisen mallin suunnittelun ja valmistuksen aikana standardoimaan tuotannon ja siten malli muistuttikin edellisiä lukuun ottamatta joitakin yksityiskohtia. Torni, jota oli laajennettu edellisen mallin kolmen hengen miehistön vaatimasta, laajeni mahdollistamaan Nro 9 radiolaitteiston sijoittamisen tornin takaosaan. Radiolaitteiston toiminta edellytti toisen generaattorin asentamista sähköntarpeen tyydyttämiseksi. Samalla vaunun massa kasvoi 4 900 kiloon ollen kuitenkin helpommin ohjattavissa. Vaunuun asennettiin myös uusi 88 hevosvoiman moottori, joka kasvatti huippunopeuden 56 kilometriin tunnissa. Siihen asennettiin varmatoiminen Horstmann-kierrejousitus.
Mark VI, VIA ja VIB vaunuissa oli aseistuksena yksi .303" Vickers-konekivääri sekä yksi .50" Vickers-konekivääri rinnan asennettuina torniin No.10 -kaksoisjalustaan. Ampujalla oli 1,9-kertaa suurentava ja 21 asteen näkökentän mahdollistava No24-tähtäin, johon oli merkitty etäisyydet 100 jaardin välein aina 1 500 jaardiin saakka. Tornia voitiin kääntää käsin 360 astetta ja asennus mahdollisti ampumisen korkeuskulmilla -10 – +37 asteeseen. Puolen tuuman konekivääriin oli vaunussa 200 panssariluotia ja .303 tuumaiseen 2 500 normaaliluotia. Tornin sivuun oli asennettu kaksi savuheitintä. 
Mark VIC -vaunussa Vickers-konekiväärit korvattiin 7,92 mm Besa ja 15 mm Besa -konekivääreillä.
Vaunun tuotannon alkaessa vuonna 1936 yleisesikunta totesi sen olevan ylivoimainen palveluksessa oleviin muihin vastaaviin ollen erittäin sopiva sekä tiedustelu- että siirtokuntatehtäviin. Toisen maailmansodan alkaessa asevoimilla oli käytössään 1002 Light Tank Mk VI -vaunua, 79 Cruiser Tank Mk I ja Mk II -vaunua sekä 67 Infantry Tank Mk I -vaunua. Näistä ainoastaan 196 kevyttä ja 50 jalkaväentukivaunua oli sijoitettuna maavoimien yksiköihin.
Ranskan taisteluiden alettua toukokuussa 1940 pääosa brittiläisen siirtoarmeijan panssareista oli Mk VI -vaunuja, jotka oli sijoitettu seitsemään 28 vaunun rykmenttiin. Pohjois-Afrikan taisteluiden alkaessa oli 3rd Hussars rykmentillä ja 7. panssaridivisioonalla Mk VI -vaunuja.
M4A3E9 Sherman Tank
The Museum’s Sherman is an M4A3, built by Ford Motor Company in 1943. No unit markings were discovered when previous coats of paint were removed from the tank. Because the tank was manufactured in 1943, it is almost certain that it was deployed overseas during the war, although no battle damage was discovered.
When the Sherman tank arrived at the Museum in December 2000, its engine was completely rusted and it was painted in a color appropriate to the Korean War era rather than World War II. Restoration work began in late October 2004, when the tank received a running Ford GAA engine and a new paint job. The tank was restored with the markings of an actual vehicle which served with D company, 1st Battalion, 67th Armored Regiment, 2nd Armored Division. The tank’s nickname, “Draftee,” is from a tank in the unit commanded by Staff Sergeant Julian Czekanski of Cleveland, Ohio. It was common practice in the US Army and Marine Corps to have nicknames for armored vehicles. The names typically started with the letter of the company to which the vehicle was assigned.
Gift of the West Bank Optimist Club, 2000.216
Date Produced: 1943
Manufacturer: Ford Motor Company
Number Produced: 12,500+
Crew: 5 (Commander, Loader, Gunner, Driver, and Assistant Driver)
Speed (sustained, level ground): 26 miles per hour
Engine: Ford GAA-V8 4-cycle, 8-cylinder (500 hp)
Weight: 68,000+ pounds
Armament: One 75 mm main gun two .30 caliber machine guns one .50 caliber machine gun
Light Tank MK VI - History
Girls und Panzer is set in an alternate universe where a sport known as "Panzerfahren" or "Sensha-do" - the art of fighting tanks, or tankery, is a lot more common than today. The sport is entirely practiced by girls and women and is considered feminine. The anime series follows the girls of Ooarai Girls Academy as they learn about, operate, and battle with all kinds of WWII tanks against other tanking schools while forming bonds with their machines and each other.
The spin-off manga Little Army gives a prequel for the animated series and follows the girls from Bellwall Academy as they practice the sport. The spin-off manga Ribbon Warrior follows the girls from Tatenashi High School as they practice Tankathlon, another type of Sensha-dou. Another spin-off manga called Phase Erika! depicts the events leading up to the anime through the eyes of Erika Itsumi. There is also a publication called Motto Love Love Sakusen Desu! that focuses on the more humorous aspects of the girl's lives, as well as providing a bit of backstory between the events of the anime and the movie. The web comic edition is updated on a constant basis.