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What kind of occupation was a “piper”?

What kind of occupation was a “piper”?

In an old parish record a John Colzear in 1598 is listed as a "piper". What kind of job is that?

He was a musician who played the pipes. As in the phrase 'He who pays the piper calls the tune'.

Belgian Congo

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Belgian Congo, French Congo Belge, former colony (coextensive with the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) in Africa, ruled by Belgium from 1908 until 1960. It was established by the Belgian parliament to replace the previous, privately owned Congo Free State, after international outrage over abuses there brought pressure for supervision and accountability. The official Belgian attitude was paternalism: Africans were to be cared for and trained as if they were children. They had no role in legislation, but traditional rulers were used as agents to collect taxes and recruit labour uncooperative rulers were deposed. In the late 1950s, when France and the United Kingdom worked with their colonies to prepare for independence, Belgium still portrayed the Congo as an idyllic land of parent-child relationships between Europeans and Africans.

Private European and American corporations invested heavily in the Belgian Congo after World War I. Large plantations (growing cotton, oil palms, coffee, cacao, and rubber) and livestock farms were developed. In the interior, gold, diamonds, copper, tin, cobalt, and zinc were mined the colony became an important source of uranium for the United States during World War II. Africans worked the mines and plantations as indentured labourers on four- to seven-year contracts, in accordance with a law passed in Belgium in 1922. Roads, railroads, electric stations, and public buildings were constructed by forced labour.

African resistance challenged the colonial regime from the beginning. A rebellion broke out in several eastern districts in 1919 and was not suppressed until 1923. Anti-European religious groups were active by the 1920s, including Kimbanguism and the Negro Mission in the west and Kitawala in the southeast. Unrest increased in the depression years (1931–36) and during World War II. Because political associations were prohibited at the time, reformers organized into cultural clubs such as Abako, a Bakongo association formed in 1950. The first nationwide Congolese political party, the Congo National Movement, was launched in 1958 by Patrice Lumumba and other Congolese leaders. In January 1959, riots broke out in Leopoldville (now Kinshasa) after a rally was held calling for the independence of the Congo. Violent altercations between Belgian forces and the Congolese also occurred later that year, and Belgium, which previously maintained that independence for the Congo would not be possible in the immediate future, suddenly capitulated and began making arrangements for the Congo’s independence. The Congo became an independent republic on June 30, 1960.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica This article was most recently revised and updated by Amy McKenna, Senior Editor.

5 Facts About Pearl Harbor and USS Arizona

1. Twenty-three sets of brothers died aboard USS Arizona.
There were 37 confirmed pairs or trios of brothers assigned to USS Arizona on December 7, 1941. Of these 77 men, 62 were killed, and 23 sets of brothers died. Only one full set of brothers, Kenneth and Russell Warriner, survived the attack Kenneth was away at flight school in San Diego on that day and Russell was badly wounded but recovered. Both members of the ship’s only father-and-son pair, Thomas Augusta Free and his son William Thomas Free, were killed in action.

Though family members often served on the same ship before World War II, U.S. officials attempted to discourage the practice after Pearl Harbor. However, no official regulations were established, and by the end of the war hundreds of brothers had fought𠅊nd died¬—together. The five Sullivan brothers of Waterloo, Iowa, for instance, jointly enlisted after learning that a friend, Bill Ball, had died aboard USS Arizona Their only condition upon enlistment was that they be assigned to the same ship. In November 1942, all five siblings were killed in action when their light cruiser, USS Juneau, was sunk during the Battle of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands.

2. USS Arizona’s entire band was lost in the attack.
Almost half of the casualties at Pearl Harbor occurred on the naval battleship USS Arizona, which was hit four times by Japanese bombers and eventually sank. Among the 1,177 crewmen killed were all 21 members of the Arizona’s band, known as U.S. Navy Band Unit (NBU) 22. Most of its members were up on deck preparing to play music for the daily flag raising ceremony when the attack began. They instantly moved to man their battle positions beneath the ship’s gun turret. At no other time in American history has an entire military band died in action.

The night before the attack, NBU 22 had attended the latest round of the annual �ttle of Music” competition between military bands from U.S. ships based at Pearl Harbor. Contrary to some reports, NBU 22 did not perform, having already qualified for the finals set to be held on December 20, 1941. Following the assault, the unit was unanimously declared the winner of that year’s contest, and the award was permanently renamed the USS Arizona Band Trophy.

3. Fuel continues to leak from USS Arizona’s wreckage.
On December 6, 1941, Arizona took on a full load of fuel—nearly 1.5 million gallons—in preparation for its scheduled trip to the mainland later that month. The next day, much of it fed the explosion and subsequent fires that destroyed the ship following its attack by Japanese bombers. However, despite the raging fire and ravages of time, some 500,000 gallons are still slowly seeping out of the ship’s submerged wreckage: Nearly 70 years after its demise, Arizona continues to spill up to 9 quarts of oil into the harbor each day. In the mid-1990s, environmental concerns led the National Park Service to commission a series of site studies to determine the long-term effects of the oil leakage.

Some scientists have warned of a possible �tastrophic” eruption of oil from the wreckage, which they believe would cause extensive damage to the Hawaiian shoreline and disrupt U.S. naval functions in the area. The NPS and other governmental agencies continue to monitor the deterioration of the wreck site but are reluctant to perform extensive repairs or modifications due to the Arizona’s role as a “war grave.” In fact, the oil that often coats the surface of the water surrounding the ship has added an emotional gravity for many who visit the memorial and is sometimes referred to as the “tears of the Arizona,” or 𠇋lack tears.”

4. Some former crewmembers have chosen USS Arizona as their final resting place.
The bonds between the crewmembers of Arizona have lasted far beyond the ship’s loss on December 7, 1941. Since 1982, the U.S. Navy has allowed survivors of USS Arizona to be interred in the ship’s wreckage upon their deaths. Following a full military funeral at the Arizona memorial, the cremated remains are placed in an urn and then deposited by divers beneath one of the Arizona’s gun turrets. To date, more than 30 Arizona crewmen who survived Pearl Harbor have chosen the ship as their final resting place. Crewmembers who served on the ship prior to the attack may have their ashes scattered above the wreck site, and those who served on other vessels stationed at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, may have their ashes scattered above their former ships. As of November 2011, only 18 of the 355 crewmen who survived the bombing of USS Arizona are known to be alive.

5. A memorial was built at the USS Arizona site, thanks in part to Elvis Presley.
After Arizona sank, its superstructure and main armament were salvaged and reused to support the war effort, leaving its hull, two gun turrets and the remains of more than 1,000 crewmen submerged in less than 40 feet of water. In 1949 the Pacific War Memorial Commission was established to create a permanent tribute to those who had lost their lives in the attack on Pearl Harbor, but it wasn’t until 1958 that President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed legislation to create a national memorial. The funds to build it came from both the public sector and private donors, including one unlikely source. In March 1961, entertainer Elvis Presley, who had recently finished a two-year stint in the U.S. Army, performed a benefit concert at Pearl Harbor’s Block Arena that raised over $50,000—more than 10 percent of the USS Arizona Memorial’s final cost. The monument was officially dedicated on May 30, 1962, and attracts more than 1 million visitors each year.

FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate.

Women in Male-Dominated Industries and Occupations (Quick Take)

Women working in male-dominated industries face a variety of challenges, including:

  • Societal expectations and beliefs about women’s leadership abilities. 6
  • Pervasive stereotypes, such as that of the “caring mother” 7 or office housekeeper. 8
  • Higher stress and anxiety compared to women working in other fields. 9
  • Lack of mentoring and career development opportunities. 10
  • Sexual harassment. 11
  • Distancing themselves from colleagues, especially other women.
  • Accepting masculine cultural norms and acting like “one of the boys,” which exacerbates the problem by contributing to the normalization of this culture.
  • Leaving the industry.
Reports of Sexual Harassment Are More Prevalent in Male-Dominated Industries 13

In a 2017 survey, 28% of women working in male-dominated industries stated they had personally experienced sexual harassment, compared to 20% of women in female-dominated industries. 14

This heightened level of harassment is a problem even before women enter the workforce. One study found that women pursuing male-dominated university majors experience higher levels of harassment than women earning other degrees 15

Occupational Segregation Contributes to the Gender Pay Gap 16
  • 26 out of the 30 highest-paying jobs in the US are male-dominated. In comparison, 23 out of the 30 lowest-paying jobs in the US are female-dominated. 20
  • Some jobs, such as electricians and automotive service technicians and mechanics, have too few women employed to even compare earnings.22
  • Millennials in the US are less segregated by sex in occupations compared to previous generations. 23

In Canada, women who participate in apprenticeship programs in male-dominated fields earn 14% less than men in median hourly wages and are less likely than men to attain a job related to their field after the program. 24


Canada 25
Industry Total Employed—Percent Women (2019)
Construction 12.1%
Manufacturing, Durables 21.6%
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction 17.7%
Transportation and Warehousing 23.5%
Utilities 24.5%
Europe 26
Total Employed—Percent Women by Industry (2019) EU-28 France Germany Netherlands Sweden Switzerland UK
Construction 10.2% 10.2% 15.4% 9.7% 8.2% 11.4% 12.5%
Manufacturing 29.6% 29.9% 27.1% 22.7% 24.2% 29.7% 26.1%
Transportation and Storage 21.7% 25.4% 25.2% 24.4% 22.3% 24.5% 17.7%
United States—Occupations 27
Total Employed—Percent Women (2019) All Women White Women Black Women Asian Women Latinas
Civil Engineers 13.9% 10.7% 0.8% 2.3% 1.3%
Computer Programmers 20.3% 13.9% 2.2% 4.2% 1.3%
Construction Managers 10.0% 7.8% 0.5% 0.7% 1.7%
Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers 6.7% 4.9% 1.3% 0.1% 1.0%
Mechanical Engineers 6.6% 4.8% 0.6% 1.1% 0.3%
Software Developers, Applications and Systems Software 18.7% 7.5% 1.5% 9.4% 0.8%
United States—Industries 28
Total Employed—Percent Women (2018) All Women White Women Black Women Asian Women Latinas
Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction 15.7% 12.7% 1.2% 1.2% 2.7%
Construction 10.3% 9.0% 0.5% 0.4% 1.9%
Transportation and Utilities 24.1% 16.0% 5.9% 1.3% 4.2%


Elliot Bentley and Soo Oh, “What ‘Women’s Work’ Looks Like Now,” The Wall Street Journal, October 14, 2019.

How to cite this product: Catalyst, Quick Take: Women in Male-Dominated Industries and Occupations (February 5, 2020).

  1. Examples of male-dominated occupations include electricians, computer network architects, and mechanical engineers. U.S. Department of Labor, Women’s Bureau, “Occupations with the Smallest Share of Women Workers,” Employment and Earnings in Selected Occupations (2017) Mariela V. Campuzano, “Force and Inertia: A Systematic Review of Women’s Leadership in Male-Dominated Organizational Cultures in the United States,” Human Resource Development Review (2019): p. 8.
  2. Mariela V. Campuzano, “Force and Inertia: A Systematic Review of Women’s Leadership in Male-Dominated Organizational Cultures in the United States,” Human Resource Development Review (2019): p. 2.
  3. Ariane Hegewisch and Adiam Tesfaselassie, Fact Sheet: The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2018 and by Race and Ethnicity (Institute for Women’s Policy Research, April 2, 2019).
  4. Jed Kolko and Claire Cain Miller, “As Labor Market Tightens, Women Are Moving Into Male-Dominated Jobs,” The New York Times, December 14, 2018.
  5. Carolina Pía García Johnson and Kathleen Otto, “Better Together: A Model for Women and LGBTQ Equality in the Workplace,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 10, no. 272 (2019).
  6. Catalyst, Infographic: The Double-Bind Dilemma for Women in Leadership (Catalyst, August 2, 2018) Mariela V. Campuzano, “Force and Inertia: A Systematic Review of Women’s Leadership in Male-Dominated Organizational Cultures in the United States,” Human Resource Development Review (2019): p. 2.
  7. Dilshani Sarathchandra, Kristin Haltinner, Nicole Lichtenberg, and Hailee Tracy, “‘It’s Broader Than Just My Work Here’: Gender Variations in Accounts of Success Among Engineers in U.S. Academia,” Social Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3 (February 2018).
  8. Jennifer L. Berdahl, Marianne Cooper, Peter Glick, Robert W. Livingston, and Joan C. Williams, “Work as a Masculinity Contest,” Journal of Social Issues, vol. 74, no. 3 (2018): p. 431.
  9. Yue Qian and Wen Fan, “Men and Women at Work: Occupational Gender Composition and Affective Well-Being in the United States,” Journal of Happiness Studies, vol. 20 (2019): p. 2077-2099.
  10. Mariela V. Campuzano, “Force and Inertia: A Systematic Review of Women’s Leadership in Male-Dominated Organizational Cultures in the United States,” Human Resource Development Review (2019): p. 6.
  11. Lauren P. Daley, Dnika J. Travis, and Emily S. Shaffer, Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: How Companies Can Prepare, Prevent, Respond, and Transform Their Culture (Catalyst, 2018).
  12. Dilshani Sarathchandra, Kristin Haltinner, Nicole Lichtenberg, and Hailee Tracy, “‘It’s Broader Than Just My Work Here’: Gender Variations in Accounts of Success Among Engineers in U.S. Academia,” Social Sciences, vol. 7, no. 3 (February 2018).
  13. The Women’s Initiative, Center for American Progress, “Gender Matters” (August 6, 2018).
  14. Kim Parker, “Women in Majority-Male Workplaces Report Higher Rates of Gender Discrimination,” Pew Research Center Fact Tank, March 7, 2018.
  15. Brooke E. Dresden, Alexander Y. Dresden, Robert D. Ridge, and Niwako Yamawaki, “No Girls Allowed: Women in Male-Dominated Majors Experience Increased Gender Harassment and Bias,” Psychological Reports, vol. 121 (September 2017).
  16. American Association of University Women, The Simple Truth About the Gender Pay Gap: Fall 2019 Update (2019).
  17. American Association of University Women, The Simple Truth About the Gender Pay Gap: Fall 2019 Update (2019).
  18. European Institute for Gender Equality, Gender Equality Index 2019: Work-Life Balance (2019): p. 29-31.
  19. Anne Hegewisch and Adiam Tesfaselassie, Fact Sheet: The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2018 and by Race and Ethnicity (Institute for Women’s Policy Research, April 2, 2019).
  20. The Economist, “Men Still Pick ‘Blue” Jobs and Women ‘Pink’ Jobs,” February 16, 2019.
  21. Asaf Levanon, Paula England, and Paul Allison, “Occupational Feminization and Pay: Assessing Causal Dynamics Using 1950–2000 U.S. Census Data,” Social Forces, vol. 88 (December 2009): p. 865-892 Claire Cain Miller, “As Women Take Over a Male-Dominated Field, the Pay Drops,” The New York Times, March 18, 2016.
  22. Anne Hegewisch and Adiam Tesfaselassie, Fact Sheet: The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2018 and by Race and Ethnicity (Institute for Women’s Policy Research, April 2, 2019).
  23. Kim A. Weeden, State of the Union: Occupational Segregation (Stanford Center on Poverty and Inequality, June 2019).
  24. Statistics Canada, “How Do Women in Male-Dominated Apprenticeships Fare in the Labour Market?” (March 13, 2019).
  25. Statistics Canada, “Labour Force Characteristics by Industry, Annual (x 1,000)” (2019).
  26. Eurostat, “Employment by Sex, Age and Economic Activity (From 2008 Onwards, NACE Rev. 2) – 1 000, 2019Q3,” Eurostat Database (2020).
  27. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Table 11: Employed Persons by Detailed Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity, 2019,” Current Population Survey, Household Data Annual Averages 2019 (2020) U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Table 1: Employed and Experienced Unemployed Persons by Detailed Occupation, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity, Annual Average 2019,” Current Population Survey (unpublished data) (2020).
  28. U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, “Table 14: Employed Persons in Nonagricultural Industries by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic or Latino Ethnicity, 2019,” Current Population Survey, Household Data Annual Averages 2019 (2020).


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Women in the Automotive Industry (Quick Take)

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Occupy Wounded Knee: A 71-Day Siege and a Forgotten Civil Rights Movement

On February 27, 1973, a team of 200 Oglala Lakota (Sioux) activists and members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) seized control of a tiny town with a loaded history -- Wounded Knee, South Dakota. They arrived in town at night, in a caravan of cars and trucks, took the town's residents hostage, and demanded that the U.S. government make good on treaties from the 19th and early 20th centuries. Within hours, police had surrounded Wounded Knee, forming a cordon to prevent protesters from exiting and sympathizers from entering. This marked the beginning of a 71-day siege and armed conflict.

Russell Means, one of AIM's leaders, died yesterday. Means was a controversial figure within the movement and outside of it as his New York Times obituary put it, "critics, including many Indians, called him a tireless self-promoter who capitalized on his angry-rebel notoriety." After getting his start in activism in the 1970s, Means went on to run for the Libertarian presidential nomination in 1987, and for governor of New Mexico in 2002. He also acted in scores of films, most famously in a lead role in the 1992 version of The Last of the Mohicans.

For all the contradictions of his life, he was no less controversial than AIM itself. The Wounded Knee siege was both an inspiration to indigenous people and left-wing activists around the country and -- according to the U.S. Marshals Service, which besieged the town along with FBI and National Guard -- the longest-lasting "civil disorder" in 200 years of U.S. history. Two native activists lost their lives in the conflict, and a federal agent was shot and paralyzed. Like the Black Panthers or MEChA, AIM was a militant civil rights and identity movement that sprung from the political and social crisis of the late 1960s, but today it is more obscure than the latter two groups.

The Pine Ridge reservation, where Wounded Knee was located, had been in turmoil for years. To many in the area the siege was no surprise. The Oglala Lakota who lived on the reservation faced racism beyond its boundaries and a poorly managed tribal government within them. In particular, they sought the removal of tribal chairman Dick Wilson, whom many Oglala living on the reservation thought corrupt. Oglala Lakota interviewed by PBS for a documentary said Wilson seemed to favor mixed-race, assimilated Lakota like himself -- and especially his own family members -- over reservation residents with more traditional lifestyles. Efforts to remove Wilson by impeaching him had failed, and so Oglala Lakota tribal leaders turned to AIM for help in removing him by force. Their answer was to occupy Wounded Knee.

Federal marshals and National Guard traded heavy fire daily with the native activists. To break the siege, they cut off electricity and water to the town, and attempted to prevent food and ammunition from being passed to the occupiers. Bill Zimmerman, a sympathetic activist and pilot from Boston, agreed to carry out a 2,000-pound food drop on the 50th day of the siege. When the occupiers ran out of the buildings where they had been sheltering to grab the supplies, agents opened fire on them. The first member of the occupation to die, a Cherokee, was shot by a bullet that flew through the wall of a church.

To many observers, the standoff resembled the Wounded Knee Massacre of 1890 itself -- when a U.S. cavalry detachment slaughtered a group of Lakota warriors who refused to disarm. Some of the protesters also had a more current conflict in mind. As one former member of AIM told PBS, "They were shooting machine gun fire at us, tracers coming at us at nighttime just like a war zone. We had some Vietnam vets with us, and they said, 'Man, this is just like Vietnam.' "

When PBS interviewed federal officials later, they said that the first death in the conflict inspired them to work harder to bring it to a close. For the Oglala Lakota, the death of tribe member Buddy Lamont on April 26 was the critical moment. While members of AIM fought to keep the occupation going, the Oglala overruled them, and, from that point, negotiations between federal officials and the protesters began in earnest. The militants officially surrendered on May 8, and a number of members of AIM managed to escape the town before being arrested. (Those who were arrested, including Means, were almost all acquitted because key evidence was mishandled.)

Criminal History Evaluation Letter

Every individual who applies for a license with the Texas Department of Licensing and Regulation (&ldquothe Department&rdquo) is subject to a criminal background check to determine his or her suitability for the license. In 2009, the Texas Legislature enacted new provisions to allow a person to find out before applying whether he or she would likely be denied a license due to his or her criminal history. This was due to the time and expense involved in applying for a license, which in some cases includes completing required education and taking an examination. See Section 51.4012 and Chapter 53, Subchapter D, of the Occupations Code, which allow a person to request a criminal history evaluation letter from the Department, prior to actually applying for a license.

The Department has issued Criminal Conviction Guidelines for each occupation the Department licenses. These guidelines list the crimes which are considered to relate to each occupation, as well as other factors that affect the decisions of the Department. When a request for a criminal history evaluation letter is filed, the Department will review the requestor&rsquos criminal history with reference to these guidelines, the same as if an actual license application had been filed.

To request a criminal history evaluation letter, an individual must:

  • submit a request form,
  • complete a criminal history questionnaire for each crime for which he or she was convicted or placed on deferred adjudication, and
  • pay a fee ($10.00).

When a complete request is received, the Department will review the requestor&rsquos criminal convictions, deferred adjudications, and any other aspect of his or her criminal history that may have bearing on a license application. This review may include looking at court records, reviewing police records, interviewing the requestor, and interviewing any other person with knowledge of the requestor&rsquos criminal background, such as a parole officer, probation officer, police officer, or counselor.

The Department will issue a criminal history evaluation letter within 90 days of receiving a complete request. The letter will state that the Department would or would not recommend granting a license to the requestor, based on all of the information available to the Department at that time.

Any recommendation stated in an evaluation letter is not binding on the Department, should the requestor later proceed with applying for a license. The letter is intended only to provide guidance and information, to assist an individual in making an informed decision about whether or not to pursue a particular license. The Department&rsquos view of the requestor&rsquos criminal background may be different at the time of an actual license application, due to a change in the requestor&rsquos circumstances, discovery of additional information not previously known to the Department, or a change in the Department&rsquos policies relating to applicants&rsquo criminal backgrounds.

The Department&rsquos recommendation in the evaluation letter is not a final decision and cannot be appealed. If the requestor believes he or she should be granted a license despite the Department&rsquos recommendation to the contrary, the requestor may apply for the license at any time, and will be subject again to a full investigation of his or her criminal background. If, after the requestor applies for an actual license, the Department then recommends denying the license, the requestor may ask for a hearing at the State Office of Administrative Hearings (SOAH). The final decision following a SOAH hearing will be made by the Commission of Licensing and Regulation.

To request that the Department review your criminal background and issue a criminal history evaluation letter, please fill out the request form, complete a criminal history questionnaire for each crime for which you were convicted or placed on deferred adjudication, and pay the $10.00 request fee. The Department will not process a request form that is submitted without a criminal history questionnaire attached, or submitted without payment of the fee.

Criminal History Evaluation Letter Request Form

This form is available for download in Adobe Acrobat .pdf format. Acrobat Reader is necessary to view .pdf files. If you need to obtain a copy of this program it is available as a free download for Windows or Macintosh operating systems.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. How do I request an evaluation letter?

You must submit your request using the Department-prescribed form, which can be found above on this page. You must pay the required fee of $10.00 and provide all required information listed on the form before the evaluation process will begin.

2. Is there a fee? How much is it?

Yes, there is a fee required by law. The fee is $10.00.

3. Do I have to be enrolled in a school or have some type of education before I may ask for the evaluation letter?

No, you do not have to be in school or receiving any education to request the evaluation letter. Anyone considering applying for a license issued by the Department may request the Department review their background information and make an evaluation.

4. What information will you need from me?

The Department will need information for every crime which resulted in a conviction or deferred adjudication along with any other information that relates to your criminal background. Please fill out a separate criminal history questionnaire for each incident and submit it along with the evaluation letter request form.

5. What if I can&rsquot remember all my crimes?

If you cannot remember all your information, please report to the Department all information you do remember. However, if the Department issues an evaluation letter saying it would recommend granting you a license, and then later finds that you have more criminal history, the Department&rsquos conclusion may change based on getting full information.

6. What if I can&rsquot remember all the information you need, such as when the crime happened, what court I was in, etc.?

Again, try to give as much information as you can recall. If you can remember the county, you can call the county clerk or district clerk for that county and can obtain the information from the county. County information can be found at: http://www.county.org/about-texas-counties/county-websites/Pages/default.aspx. The Department of Public Safety can also provide your information to you.

7. What crimes and information do I have to report to the Department?

You must report anything for which you were convicted or received a deferred adjudication. If you received probation without a conviction, or you did not actually go to jail or prison, you still have to report that crime to the Department. All convictions and deferred adjudications are reported on the criminal history questionnaires that you will submit with the evaluation letter request.

8. I received a deferred adjudication for my crime and was technically not convicted. Do I need to report that to the Department?

Yes. Although a deferred adjudication is not a conviction, Chapters 51 and 53 of the Occupations Code give the Department the authority to consider deferred adjudications when determining whether an applicant is suitable to hold a license. All deferred adjudications must be reported to the Department.

9. How many years do I have to go back? Do I have to report convictions that are more than ten years old?

Yes. You must report all convictions and deferred adjudications to the Department, no matter how long ago they occurred. The more serious the crime, the greater the likelihood that it will be considered in the background evaluation, no matter when it happened. Also, it is necessary for the Department to see the entire criminal history to establish whether there has been a pattern of criminal behavior that would justify denying a license.

10. What crimes will prevent me from getting my license?

There is no specific crime which will result in the automatic denial of a license. However, certain crimes are more likely to result in the Department recommending the denial of a license. There are two general categories of crimes that the Department must seriously evaluate and consider before a decision can be made.

  1. Crimes which relate to the occupation and have a victim of some type. For example, someone was hurt in some manner or had something stolen from them. This is in keeping with one of the Department&rsquos main goals when issuing licenses: protecting the citizens of Texas.
  2. The Department must seriously evaluate any crime which is a felony or state jail felony and could result, or has resulted, in you being incarcerated. This is because Chapter 53 of the Texas Occupations Code states that no one who is incarcerated in a felony penal institution may hold a license.

Although the majority of crimes which would result in a denial fall into these two main categories, the Department can deny for any conviction, deferred adjudication or other information that indicates a lack of honesty, trustworthiness, or integrity to hold a license.

11. What does &ldquocrimes which relate to the occupation&rdquo or &ldquoguideline-type crime&rdquo mean?

The Department has compiled a list of all its license types and the crimes that are considered to relate directly to the duties and responsibilities of each licensed occupation. This list is called the Criminal Conviction Guidelines. The crimes listed are also known as guideline-type crimes. For example, convictions for crimes such as theft and fraud have relevance for license types that have access to money, such as auctioneers, talent agencies, and boxing promoters. When an applicant has been convicted of a crime which relates to the occupation, the Department must investigate further to try to determine if there is a possibility of the applicant repeating the same behavior while holding a state license. If it is determined that there may be a chance of repeat behavior, the Department will recommend denial of the license application. See the Criminal Conviction Guidelines for the list of license types and related crimes.

12. When will I get a response?

The Department is required to issue the evaluation letter within 90 days after receiving a completed request form. A request form is not considered complete until all required information and fees have been submitted. This includes a separate criminal history questionnaire for each crime.

13. You said yes, the Department would recommend granting me a license. Does that mean I will get a license?

Not necessarily. Any recommendation stated in an evaluation letter is not binding on the Department, should you proceed with applying for a license. The letter is intended only to provide guidance and information, to assist an individual in making an informed decision about whether to pursue a particular license. The Department&rsquos view of your criminal background may be different at the time of an actual license application, due to a change in circumstances, discovery of additional information not previously known to the Department, or a change in the Department&rsquos policies relating to applicants&rsquo criminal backgrounds.

14. You said no, the Department would not recommend granting me a license. Does that mean I won&rsquot get a license?

Not necessarily. Any recommendation stated in an evaluation letter is not binding on the Department, should you proceed with applying for a license. The letter is intended only to provide guidance and information, to assist an individual in making an informed decision about whether to pursue a particular license. The Department&rsquos view of your criminal background may be different at the time of an actual license application, due to a change in the requestor&rsquos circumstances, discovery of additional information not previously known to the Department, or a change in the Department&rsquos policies relating to applicants&rsquo criminal backgrounds.

15. You said no, the Department would not recommend granting me a license. Can I apply anyway?

Yes, you may apply for a license at any time.

16. Do I have to report a DWI? Isn&rsquot that a traffic violation?

Although you do not have to report minor traffic violations, a DWI (driving while intoxicated) is not a minor traffic violation. A first-time DWI is a class B misdemeanor which could result in up to 180 days in jail and a $2,000 fine. It is a crime and must be reported.

What Kind of Work Do Immigrants Do? Occupation and Industry of Foreign-Born Workers in the United States

This report examines the characteristics of foreign-born workers in the United States based on the 2002 Current Population Survey. Findings relate to foreign-born workers age 16 and over participating in the civilian labor force.

The report finds that foreign-born workers are employed in a broad range of occupations—with 23 percent in managerial and professional occupations 21 percent in technical, sales, and administrative support occupations 21 percent in service occupations and 18 percent working as operators, fabricators. By comparison, native employed workers are concentrated in managerial and professional and technical, sales, and administrative support occupations. The majority of native and foreign-born workers are employed in two industries—professional and related services and retail trade.

The report also finds different patterns of occupation and industry participation among foreign-born workers from Mexico and Central America. Over half of these individuals work as operators, fabricators, and laborers or in the service occupations. Compared to both the native and overall foreign-born worker population, Mexican and Central American workers are less likely to be employed in professional and related industries, and more likely to be employed in the construction and non-durable goods manufacturing industries.

Why is resume employment history important?

Your resume employment history is one of the most important sections on your resume because it details your previous accomplishments and provides functional proof of your skills. For example, while you can list the programs that you&aposre proficient in as part of your skills section, it&aposs the details in your work history that will demonstrate what you&aposve achieved while working with these programs. Your employment history tells hiring managers many things, including:

  • How long you typically stay in one job
  • Whether you&aposve been consistently promoted
  • What tasks you have experience with

The quantifiable benefits that you&aposve brought to previous employers

Why the United States Controls Guantanamo Bay

I t was six years ago, on Jan. 22, 2009, two days after he became President, that Barack Obama issued an executive order designed to “promptly close detention facilities at Guantanamo.” The closing of that prison at the U.S. naval base at Cuba’s Guantanamo Bay would, he said, take place no less than a year from that date.

Five years after the 2010 deadline passed &mdash and even as relations between the U.S. and Cuba begin to thaw &mdash the detention facilities remain in use. More than 100 prisoners remain there, even though that number is declining and officials have said that Obama would still like to achieve the closure before he leaves office.

But how did the U.S. end up with such a facility in Cuba in the first place?

The story of Guantanamo goes back more than a century, to the time of the Spanish-American War. And, during that time, it’s been, as it is now, a source of controversy.

Until 1898, Cuba had belonged to Spain as the Spanish empire diminished, Cubans fought for their independence. The U.S. joined in to help its neighbor and, though the Spanish-American War ended up focused mainly on the Spanish presence in the Philippines, Cuba was the site of the sinking of the USS Maine, the event that precipitated American military involvement. (Remember “Remember the Maine“? That’s this.) When the war ended, Spain gave the U.S. control of Cuba &mdash among other territories, like Puerto Rico &mdash and, about three years later, Cuba became an independent nation.

However, that independence was not without a catch: as part of the Platt Amendment, the document that governed the end of the occupation, the new Cuban government was required to lease or sell certain territory to the United States. Here’s how TIME later summarized (with numbers accurate for 1960) what happened next:

The U.S. rights in Guantanamo are clear and indisputable. By a treaty signed in 1903 and reaffirmed in 1934, the U.S. recognized Cuba’s “ultimate sovereignty” over the 45-sq.-mi. enclave in Oriente province near the island’s southeast end. In return, Cuba yielded the U.S. “complete jurisdiction and control” through a perpetual lease that can be voided only by mutual agreement.

For a low rental ($3,386.25 annually), the U.S. Navy gets its best natural harbor south of Charleston, S.C., plus 19,621 acres of land, enough for a complex of 1,400 buildings and two airfields, one of them capable of handling entire squadrons of the Navy’s hottest jets, e.g., 1,000-m.p.h. F8U Crusaders, 700-m.p.h. A4D Skyhawks. In terms of global strategy, Guantanamo has only marginal value. It served as an antisubmarine center in World War II, and could be one again. But its greatest worth is as an isolated, warm-water training base for the fleet. With an anchorage capable of handling 50 warships at once, it is the Navy’s top base for shakedown cruises and refresher training for both sailors and airmen. What Cuba gets out of the deal is 3,700 jobs for the technicians and laborers who help maintain the base, a payroll of $7,000,000 annually for hard-pressed Oriente.

When Fidel Castro came to power in Cuba the 1950s, there was briefly a period during which the fate of Guantanamo seemed in question. As TIME reported in the Sept. 12, 1960, issue, Castro threatened to kick the Navy out if the U.S. continued to interfere with the Cuban economy however, he also said that he knew that, if he did so, the U.S. could take it as a pretext to attack and get rid of him. Castro would continue to bring up his displeasure at the U.S. presence in Cuba &mdash in 1964, he cut off the water supply, to which the Navy responded by building its own water and power plants &mdash but the lease stayed, as did the military families based there.

Guantanamo returned to the news in the 1990s when it got a new set of residents. In 1991, in the wake of a coup d’état in Haiti, thousands of Haitians fled by sea for the United States. In December of that year, Guantanamo Bay became the site of a refugee camp built to house those who sought asylum while the Bush administration figured out what to do with them. Throughout the years that followed, the camp became home to thousands of native Cubans, too, who had also attempted to flee to the U.S. for political asylum. In the summer of 1994 alone, TIME wrote the following May, “more than 20,000 Haitians and 30,000 Cubans were intercepted at sea and delivered to hastily erected camps in Guantanamo.” In 1999, during conflict in the Balkans (and after the Haitian and Cuban refugees had been sent home or on to the States), the U.S. agreed to put up 20,000 new refugees at Guantanamo, but that plan ended up scrapped for being too far from their European homelands.

The decision to house al-Qaeda detainees at Guantanamo was reached shortly after 9/11 &mdash and, nearly as immediately, the world began to wonder just what their status would be.

Most Female and Male Occupations Since 1950

Decades ago, men went to work and women stayed at home to take care of the home and children. This of course changed a lot. In 1950, a bit over 30 percent of women aged 16 to 64 worked, and just over 80 percent of men in the same age group did. In 2015, it’s closer to 70 percent for women and high 70s for men.

Naturally, men and women now work many of the same jobs, but many jobs are mostly men or mostly women. Here’s what it looked like in 2015, based on data from the American Community Survey.

The most female job was preschool and kindergarten teachers, and the most male was carpenters. The male-female ratios for these jobs changed little. But there are a lot of jobs in the middle of the chart that shifted plenty.

Looking more broadly, here’s how employment in different job categories changed since 1950.

At this point, the most interesting is the sum of the parts. The percentage of women not in the labor force decreased at lot between 1950 to 1990 and then kind of leveled off after that. The percentage of men not in the labor force increased some.

With this in mind, I looked for occupations that showed the biggest shifts, which as you’d expect went from mostly male to female. Some shifts were gradual like bakers and compliance officers, whereas others were quicker such as mail clerks and human resources.

Between 1950 and 2015, there were 82 occupations out of 459 that flipped from male to female and/or female to male. Out of the 82, 72 shifted from male to female majority. There were 28 occupations that shifted from majority female to male. (Keep in mind that an occupation can fluctuate more than once over the years.)

Below are the six jobs that showed the most fluctuation from majority female to male. Personal care and service workers stand out.

Viking Occupations: What Did Vikings Do When They Weren’t Raiding?

Our modern-day conception of the Vikings is of groups of fearsome warriors out for plunder. Taking ship, they’d sail for the nearest unprotected town or monastery and there overcome any resisters, killing and looting. They’d take everything of value—including people. They’d then leave with their plunder and new slaves and go back to their homes. These raiders and killers would be gone before anyone could raise a defense against them.

This is a true picture of the Vikings, as they raided and plundered for a couple of hundred years. Yet it is not the only picture we should have of these energetic people. Besides occasional raids, Vikings were explorers, traders and extraordinary craftsmen. It is by virtue of their shipbuilders and weapon makers that the Vikings were so successful in raiding European countries.

Most Vikings were farmers as previously mentioned in “Life on a Viking Farm”. They were also excellent all-around handymen: carpenters, blacksmiths, bone-carvers, animal doctors, fence repairers, herdsmen and so on. They could do whatever was needed around the farm—they made or repaired most of the tools and they built whatever building they needed for themselves and their animals. When work on the farm slowed down, then the Viking farmers might get with a group and go raiding, exploring or trading.

As the Viking Age progressed, trading centers began to appear in each of the Viking countries: Sweden, Norway and Denmark. Gradually, these centers, where traders from all over Europe, Russia and the Middle East would come, grew into towns. In these towns, and others in Europe and Russia, Vikings began to specialize in the arts, crafts, metalworking, pottery etc. By the middle of the Viking age, you’d find not only Viking farmers, traders and blacksmiths, but armor and weapon makers, carpenters, stone carvers, jewelry makers, bead makers, bone and antler carvers, cup makers, potters, weavers, slave traders and amber dealers.

Besides raiding and farming, Vikings were exceptional craftsmen. Shipbuilders built not only the dreaded dragon ships, but also knarrs, ocean-going merchant ships, and a variety of other specialized boats. Jewelers, bronze-casters, antler carvers and bead makers made their splendid jewelry in every trading town. Viking craftsmen produced tableware, clothing, leather work, shoes and boots and every other kind of tool or household object that people used in those days.

While our impression of the Vikings as terrifying warriors isn’t wrong, it also isn’t the only image we should have. The Scandinavian people had a huge impact on the history and culture of Russia and Europe. Their trade empire went from the Arctic Circle to Northern Africa and all points between, including the Middle East. They found and settled the new colonies of Iceland, Greenland and Vinland, at least temporarily. They founded new states in Normandy, France and in the Ukraine in Russia and conquered England. Vikings were raiders and pirates, but they were so much more besides.

This article is part of our larger selection of posts about Vikings history. To learn more, click here for our comprehensive guide to Vikings history

Watch the video: Job 1-42 - The Bible from 30,000 Feet - Skip Heitzig - Flight JOB01 (January 2022).