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Da Ming Hunyi Tu

Da Ming Hunyi Tu


Da Ming Hunyi Tu

The Da Ming Hunyi Tu is an extensive Chinese map. It was painted in colour on stiff silk and 386 x 456 cm in size. The original text was written in Classical Chinese, but on the surviving copy Manchu labels were later superimposed. The surviving copy of the map shows later revisions, and it is uncertain whether it is the original.
It is one of the oldest surviving maps from East Asia although the exact date of creation remains unknown. It depicts Eurasia, placing China in the center and stretching northward to Mongolia, southward to Java, eastward to central Japan, and westward to Europe including the East African coast as an island.

1. History
The map was created sometime during the Ming dynasty and handed over to the new rulers of China, the Manchus.
The place names of China on the map reflect the political situation in 1389, or the 22nd year of the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. Thus some Chinese scholars concluded that it was indeed created in 1389 or little later. Others maintain a cautious attitude, suggesting that what was created in 1389 is probably a source map of the Da Ming Hunyi Tu and that the Da Ming Hunyi Tu itself dates much later.
In either case, it is certain that the Ming dynasty created a map around 1389. Japanese scholar Miya Noriko speculated on the motivation behind it: Although the Hongwu Emperor, first of the Ming dynasty, drove the Mongol Yuan dynasty out of China in 1368, Mongols maintained military power that posed a real threat to the new dynasty. The situation was changed in 1388 when Uskhal Khan of Northern Yuan was killed and the Khubilaid line of succession was terminated. The Ming dynasty may have celebrated this historic event by creating a new map.
It has been kept on the Imperial Palace and was called Qingzi Qian Yitong Tu 清字簽一統圖 "Manchu text-labelled unified map" in some catalogs. It is currently kept in protective storage at the First Historical Archive of China, in Beijing. A full-sized digital replica was made for the South African government in 2002.

3. Content
The Earths curvature affects even the scale of the Chinese section of the map. Horizontally, it works out at about 1:820.000 but vertically it is around 1:1.060.000. The use of colour is particularly effective within China itself, including elegant touches like the ochre tint of the Yellow River.
It replicates the curvature of the Earth by compression of areas farthest away from China most obviously the extreme horizontal squeeze of Europe, their reduced size making both a geographical and a political statement. Outside China, sub-Saharan Africa is depicted in a good approximation of the correct shape, complete with mountains near the southern tip. The interior of the continent is extraordinary: a river with twin sources the common depiction in Classical and Islamic maps of the Nile starts in the south of the continent, but enters the Red Sea, while the Nile, contrary to the information in non-Chinese maps of the era though in conformity with a reported Arab geographical legend that "farther south from the Sahara Desert is a great lake, far greater than the Caspian Sea" has its source in a vast inland sea. This is likely to be based on vague information about the several great lakes in the region of modern Tanzania, gained during the course of direct trade between China and south-east Africa.
The European coverage goes only as far as the new portolan mapping, showing the Mediterranean and Black Sea areas. Unlike the African lake. those seas are not shaded with wave symbols, and nor is the nearby Caspian Sea, mapped in Islamic style with two islands, suggesting that the whole area is based on a single Islamic map. Arabia is squeezed horizontally, but recognisable. The prominent peninsula on the west coast of the Chinese landmass is Malaysia, but India is represented merely as a collection of place-names north-west of Arabia. Another manifestation of the same problem, dependence on external sources for geographical information, can be seen to the south of Korea, at the far right side of the map, where Japan, over-sized and misshapen, confusingly meets the much more correctly sized and positioned Taiwan.


Cross-Currents: East Asian History and Culture Review

In 2002, an exhibition at South Africa’s parliament included a reproduction of the Da Ming Hunyi Tu (Amalgamated map of the Great Ming), citing it as the earliest world map to depict the entire African continent. As part of its broader efforts to shape a narrative of long-standing and peaceful international relations with Africa, the People’s Republic of China formally presented a replica of this map as a gift to the South African government in conjunction with the exhibition. In official statements and popular media coverage alike, the map was described as evidence of a distinctly Chinese approach to global relations, based on benevolence and mutual respect. In particular, the map was ahistorically intertwined with the legacy of Zheng He’s diplomatic expeditions, which reached the East African coast in the early 1400s. To the cartographic historian, however, the depiction of Africa in the Da Ming Hunyi Tu is clearly derived from non-Chinese sources that predate Zheng He’s expeditions. This article examines the ways in which the map has been divorced from its original context to suit modern needs, exemplifying the deployment of cartography to deflect anxieties about the nature of Chinese economic influence in South Africa. Keywords: Da Ming Hunyi Tu, China, South Africa, cartography, diplomacy, Zheng He, Ming


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Ancient Greece

Early Greek Literature

In reviewing the literature of early geography and early conceptions of the earth, all sources lead to Homer, who is considered by many (Strabo, Kish, and Dilke) as the founding father of Geography. Regardless of the doubts about Homer's existence, one thing is certain: he never was a mapmaker. The enclosed map, which represents the conjectural view of the Homeric world, was never created by him. It is an imaginary reconstruction of the world as Homer described it in his two poems the Iliad and the Odyssey. It is worth mentioning that each of these writings involves strong geographic symbolism. They can be seen as descriptive pictures of life and warfare in the Bronze Age and the illustrated plans of real journeys. Thus, each one develops a philosophical view of the world, which makes it possible to show this information in the form of a map.

The depiction of the earth conceived by Homer, which was accepted by the early Greeks, represents a circular flat disk surrounded by a constantly moving stream of Ocean (Brown, 22), an idea which would be suggested by the appearance of the horizon as it is seen from a mountaintop or from a seacoast. Homer's knowledge of the Earth was very limited. He and his Greek contemporaries knew very little of the earth beyond Egypt as far south as the Libyan desert, the south-west coast of Asia Minor, and the northern boundary of the Greek homeland. Furthermore, the coast of the Black Sea was only known through myths and legends that circulated during his time. In his poems there is no mention of Europe and Asia as geographical concepts (Thompson, 21), and no mention of the Phoenicians either (Thompson, 40). This seems strange if we recall that the origin of the name Oceanus, a term used by Homer in his poems, belonged to the Phoenicians (Thomson, 27). That is why the big part of Homer's world that is portrayed on this interpretive map represents lands that border on the Aegean Sea. It is worth noting that even through Greeks believed that they were in the middle of the earth, they also thought that the edges of the world's disk were inhabited by savage, monstrous barbarians and strange animals and monsters Homer's Odyssey mentions a great many of them.

Additional statements about ancient geography may be found in Hesiod's poems, probably written during the eighth century BCE (Kirsh, 1). Through the lyrics of Works and Days and Theogony he shows to his contemporaries some definite geographical knowledge. He introduces the names of such rivers as Nile, Ister (Danube), the shores of the Bosporus, and the Euxine (Black Sea), the coast of Gaul, the island of Sicily, and a few other regions and rivers (Keane, 6–7). His advanced geographical knowledge not only had predated Greek colonial expansions, but also was used in the earliest Greek world maps, produced by Greek mapmakers such as Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus.

Early Greek maps

In classical antiquity, maps were drawn by Anaximander, Hecataeus of Miletus, Herodotus, Eratosthenes, and Ptolemy using both observations by explorers and a mathematical approach.

Early steps in the development of intellectual thought in ancient Greece belonged to Ionians from their well-known city of Miletus in Asia Minor. Miletus was placed favourably to absorb aspects of Babylonian knowledge and to profit from the expanding commerce of the Mediterranean. The earliest ancient Greek who is said to have constructed a map of the world is Anaximander of Miletus (), pupil of Thales. He believed that the earth was a cylindrical form, like a stone pillar and suspended in space. [12] The inhabited part of his world was circular, disk-shaped, and presumably located on the upper surface of the cylinder (Brown, 24).

Apparently, Anaximander was the first ancient Greek to draw a map of the known world. It is for this reason that he is considered by many to be the first mapmaker (Dilke, 23). A scarcity of archaeological and written evidence prevents us from giving any assessment of his map. What we may presume is that he portrayed land and sea in a map form. Unfortunately, any definite geographical knowledge that he included in his map is lost as well. Although the map has not survived, Hecataeus of Miletus (550–475 BCE) produced another map fifty years later that he claimed was an improved version of the map of his illustrious predecessor.

Hecatæus's map describes the earth as a circular plate with an encircling Ocean and Greece in the centre of the world. This was a very popular contemporary Greek worldview, derived originally from the Homeric poems. Also, similar to many other early maps in antiquity his map has no scale. As units of measurements, this map used "days of sailing" on the sea and "days of marching" on dry land (Goode, 2). The purpose of this map was to accompany Hecatæus's geographical work that was called Periodos Ges, or Journey Round the World (Dilke, 24). Periodos Ges was divided into two books, "Europe" and "Asia", with the latter including Libya, the name of which was an ancient term for all of the known Africa.

The work follows the assumption of the author that the world was divided into two continents, Asia and Europe. He depicts the line between the Pillars of Hercules through the Bosporus, and the Don River as a boundary between the two. Hecatæus is the first known writer who thought that the Caspian flows into the circumference ocean—an idea that persisted long into the Hellenic period. He was particularly informative on the Black Sea, adding many geographic places that already were known to Greeks through the colonization process. To the north of the Danube, according to Hecatæus, were the Rhipæan (gusty) Mountains, beyond which lived the Hyperboreans—peoples of the far north. Hecatæus depicted the origin of the Nile River at the southern circumference ocean. His view of the Nile seems to have been that it came from the southern circumference ocean. This assumption helped Hecatæus solve the mystery of the annual flooding of the Nile. He believed that the waves of the ocean were a primary cause of this occurrence (Tozer, 63). It is worth mentioning that a similar map based upon one designed by Hecataeus was intended to aid political decision-making. According to Herodotus, it was engraved upon a bronze tablet and was carried to Sparta by Aristagoras during the revolt of the Ionian cities against Persian rule from 499 to 494 BCE.

Anaximenes of Miletus (6th century BCE), who studied under Anaximander, rejected the views of his teacher regarding the shape of the earth and instead, he visualized the earth as a rectangular form supported by compressed air. What is interesting here is that his incorrect idea about the shape of the world somehow persisted in the form of how the contemporary maps are presented today. Most current maps are limited to this rectangular shape (i.e. border of the map (neatline), computer screen, or document page).

Pythagoras of Samos (c.560-480 BCE) speculated about the notion of a spherical earth with a central fire at its core. He is also credited with the introduction of a model that divides a spherical earth into five zones. One hot, two temperate, and two cold—northern and southern. It seems likely that he illustrated his division in the form of a map, however, no evidence of this has survived to the present.

Scylax, a sailor, made a record of his Mediterranean voyages c.515 BCE. This is the earliest known set of Greek periploi, or sailing instructions, which became the basis for many future mapmakers, especially in the medieval period. [13]

The way in which the geographical knowledge of the Greeks advanced from the previous assumptions of the Earth's shape was through Herodotus and his conceptual view of the world. This map also did not survive and many have speculated that it was never produced. A possible reconstruction of his map is displayed below.

Herodotus traveled very extensively, collecting information and documenting his findings in his books on Europe, Asia, and Libya. He also combined his knowledge with what he learned from the people he met. Herodotus wrote his Histories in the mid-400s BCE. Although his work was dedicated to the story of long struggle of the Greeks with the Persian Empire, Herodotus also included everything he knew about the geography, history, and peoples of the world. Thus, his work provides a detailed picture of the known world of the fifth century BCE.

Herodotus rejected the prevailing view of most fifth century maps that the earth is a circular plate surrounded by Ocean. In his work he describes the earth as an irregular shape with oceans surrounding only Asia and Africa. He introduces names such as the Atlantic Sea and the Erythrean Sea. He also divided the world into three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. He depicted the boundary of Europe as the line from the Pillars of Hercules through the Bosporus and the area between Caspian Sea and Indus River. He regarded the Nile as the boundary between Asia and Africa. He speculated that the extent of Europe was much greater than was assumed at the time and left Europe's shape to be determined by future research.

In the case of Africa, he believed that, except for the small stretch of land in the vicinity of Suez, the continent was in fact surrounded by water. However, he definitely disagreed with his predecessors and contemporaries about its presumed circular shape. He based his theory on the story of Pharaoh Necho II, the ruler of Egypt between 609 and 594 BCE, who had sent Phoenicians to circumnavigate Africa. Apparently, it took them three years, but they certainly did prove his idea. He speculated that the Nile River started as far west as the Ister River in Europe and cut Africa through the middle. He was the first writer to assume that the Caspian Sea was separated from other seas and he recognised northern Scythia as one of the coldest inhabited lands in the world.

Similar to his predecessors, Herodotus also made mistakes. He accepted a clear distinction between the civilized Greeks in the centre of the earth and the barbarians on the world's edges. In his Histories we can see very clearly that he believed that the world became stranger and stranger when one traveled away from Greece, until one reached the ends of the earth, where humans behaved as savages.

Spherical Earth and Meridians

Whereas a number of previous Greek philosophers presumed the earth to be spherical, Aristotle (384–322 BCE) is the one to be credited with proving the Earth's sphericity. Those arguments may be summarized as follows:

  • The lunar eclipse is always circular
  • Ships seem to sink as they move away from view and pass the horizon
  • Some stars can be seen only from certain parts of the Earth.

A vital contribution to mapping the reality of the world came with a scientific estimate of the circumference of the earth. This event has been described as the first scientific attempt to give geographical studies a mathematical basis. The man credited for this achievement was Eratosthenes (275–195 BCE). As described by George Sarton, historian of science, “there was among them [Eratosthenes's contemporaries] a man of genius but as he was working in a new field they were too stupid to recognize him” (Noble, 27). His work, including On the Measurement of the Earth and Geographica, has only survived in the writings of later philosophers such as Cleomedes and Strabo. He was a devoted geographer who set out to reform and perfect the map of the world. Eratosthenes argued that accurate mapping, even if in two dimensions only, depends upon the establishment of accurate linear measurements. He was able to calculate the circumference of the Earth within 0.5 percent accuracy by calculating the heights of shadows on different parts of the Egypt at a given time. The first in Alexandria, the other further up the Nile, where reports of a well into which the sun shone only at midsummer, long existed. Proximity to the equator being the dynamics creating the effect. He had the distance between the two shadows calculated and then their height. From this he determined the difference in angle between the two points and calculated how large a circle would be made by adding in the rest of the degrees to 360. His great achievement in the field of cartography was the use of a new technique of charting with meridians, his imaginary north–south lines, and parallels, his imaginary west–east lines. [14] These axis lines were placed over the map of the earth with their origin in the city of Rhodes and divided the world into sectors. Then, Eratosthenes used these earth partitions to reference places on the map. He also was the first person to divide Earth correctly into five climatic regions: a torrid zone across the middle, two frigid zones at extreme north and south, and two temperate bands in between. He was also the first person to use the word "geography".

Claudius Ptolemy (90–168 CE) thought that, with the aid of astronomy and mathematics, the earth could be mapped very accurately. Ptolemy revolutionized the depiction of the spherical earth on a map by using perspective projection, and suggested precise methods for fixing the position of geographic features on its surface using a coordinate system with parallels of latitude and meridians of longitude. [5] [15]

Ptolemy's eight-volume atlas Geographia is a prototype of modern mapping and GIS. It included an index of place-names, with the latitude and longitude of each place to guide the search, scale, conventional signs with legends, and the practice of orienting maps so that north is at the top and east to the right of the map—a universal custom today.

Yet with all his important innovations, however, Ptolemy was not infallible. His most important error was a miscalculation of the circumference of the earth. He believed that Eurasia covered 180° of the globe, which convinced Christopher Columbus to sail across the Atlantic to look for a simpler and faster way to travel to India. Had Columbus known that the true figure was much greater, it is conceivable that he would never have set out on his momentous voyage.


Da Ming Hunyi Tu - History

Da Ming Hun Yi Tu (1389)
(Amalgamated map of the great Ming empire)
----------------------------------------------------
Taken from: news.bbc.co.uk and ruf.rice.edu and uni.erfurt.de and taint.org and exboard.com

This map is said to be the oldest map of the African continent with the continent facing south, and showing South Africa dating back to 1389.

The Chinese map covering more then 17 square meters was produced in silk. It is thought to be a copy of a map sculpted into rock 20 or 30

years earlier. Many believe the mountains in the south are the Drakenbergen in South Africa.
Drawn on a horizontal scale of 1:820,000 and a vertical scale of 1:1,060,000, it covers an area extending all the way from Japan to the

Atlantic Ocean (including both Europe and Africa), and from Mongolia to Java. Although the section on China seems to be derived primarily

from Zhu Siben's Yutu, the renderings of Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia appear to have been based at least in part on Li Zemin's

Shengjiao guangbei tu (Map of the Vast Reach of [China's Moral] Teaching c. 1330), no longer extant.
The map also shows a great lake, covering almost half the continents land mass. Researchers suggest it may have been drawn on the

basis of an Arab legend that stated "further south from the Sahara Desert is a great lake, far greater than the Caspian Sea".
The map of Zhu Siben originated by putting together Arabic and Chinese sources.

1 桑骨人 or 桑骨八 Sang gu ren (Zangi people) or San gu ba (Zanzibar) (wrongly put on the west coast).

2 这中鲁哈 麻 Zhe zhong lu ha ma : Takahashi 1963 restored it as Arabic jabal al-qamar, meaning Mountains of the Moon.

3 法那伊斯哇 Fa-na-yi-si-wa (Wang et al. 1994 p54) which in Chu Ssu pen is 哈 纳伊斯 哇 Ha na yi si wa Hatt al Istiua equator.

4 娣八奴 Di ba nu Arabic diba from Sanskrit dvipa, meaning island. In Arabic manuscripts this is Maldives Islands archipelago and ‘nu’ Chinese for slaves. Or: Tabarna Arabic for Taprobane (Ceylon)of Ptolemy. (Kenzheakhmet p113)

6 喝卒 He zu ?? (Pronounced: gou-tzoe) I think: Djeziret-el-Qeroud (pronounced el goe-roo) island overtaken by monkeys. For this see my web-page for Ibn Said al Maghribi (1250) Kitab Djoughrafiya.

7 失 尔剌 秃里 那 Shi er la tu li na ?? with Chu ssu pen (1320) : 失阿剌 秃里 赤 Si a la tu li shi (Shih-a-la t'u-li-ch'ih) The Chinese web-book of the: Ancient Seven Seas Gazetteer (http://www.world10k.com/blog/?p=1335) on page 1335 translates 秃里赤 Tu li shi as: ‘place of those made naked black and red’ and gives a list of books in which it is used. I think this must be translated here just as Sofala, a place of those made naked black and red.

8 冒西哈比那 Mao xi ha bi na ?? appears also at Chu ssu pen.

According to Nurlan Kenzheakhmet: 昌西哈必剌 Chang xi ha bi la = Zanj-I-Qanbala (Zanj of Qanbalu).

9 顆細打賓 Ke xi da bin ?? I think: Djezir Arin = dome of the earth. For this see my web-page for Ibn Said al Maghribi (1250) Kitab Djoughrafiya.

10 with Chu ssu pen and Ch'uan Chin and Li Hui: 哇阿哇 Wa a wa : according to my opinion this is to be Waq Waq.

-All the placenames that are transliterations are found in the work of Ibn Said al Maghribi (1250) Kitab Djoughrafiya. And Ibn Said makes them also all into islands off the east coast of Africa, except for Sofala which he puts on the main land.

-The names that give other information are in accordance with the information given by Muslim geographers. These are 4: Ti ba nu (Diba-nu) Island slaves. 7 Si a la tu li shi Sofala, a place of those made naked black and red.

Map of the islands on the very bottom of the map on the edge between Africa and Asia.

These islands exist also on several copies of the Kangnido’s. And they have as many inscriptions.

Of the three big islands on this map the lowest is East Africa, above it Arabia island, and above it South India island according to the

Chinese sources. The explanation is that the Chinese sailors knew that if you cross the ocean starting from the Asian continent you

come to South India crossing again you arrive in South Arabia and crossing again in East Africa.

I do not know the inscriptions here but those on the Kangnido maps give names of places for respectively East Africa, South Arabia


Da Ming Hunyi Tu - History

Da Ming Hun Yi Tu (1389)
(Amalgamated map of the great Ming empire)
----------------------------------------------------
Taken from: news.bbc.co.uk and ruf.rice.edu and uni.erfurt.de and taint.org and exboard.com

This map is said to be the oldest map of the African continent with the continent facing south, and showing South Africa dating back to 1389.

The Chinese map covering more then 17 square meters was produced in silk. It is thought to be a copy of a map sculpted into rock 20 or 30

years earlier. Many believe the mountains in the south are the Drakenbergen in South Africa.
Drawn on a horizontal scale of 1:820,000 and a vertical scale of 1:1,060,000, it covers an area extending all the way from Japan to the

Atlantic Ocean (including both Europe and Africa), and from Mongolia to Java. Although the section on China seems to be derived primarily

from Zhu Siben's Yutu, the renderings of Africa, Europe and Southeast Asia appear to have been based at least in part on Li Zemin's

Shengjiao guangbei tu (Map of the Vast Reach of [China's Moral] Teaching c. 1330), no longer extant.
The map also shows a great lake, covering almost half the continents land mass. Researchers suggest it may have been drawn on the

basis of an Arab legend that stated "further south from the Sahara Desert is a great lake, far greater than the Caspian Sea".
The map of Zhu Siben originated by putting together Arabic and Chinese sources.

1 桑骨人 or 桑骨八 Sang gu ren (Zangi people) or San gu ba (Zanzibar) (wrongly put on the west coast).

2 这中鲁哈 麻 Zhe zhong lu ha ma : Takahashi 1963 restored it as Arabic jabal al-qamar, meaning Mountains of the Moon.

3 法那伊斯哇 Fa-na-yi-si-wa (Wang et al. 1994 p54) which in Chu Ssu pen is 哈 纳伊斯 哇 Ha na yi si wa Hatt al Istiua equator.

4 娣八奴 Di ba nu Arabic diba from Sanskrit dvipa, meaning island. In Arabic manuscripts this is Maldives Islands archipelago and ‘nu’ Chinese for slaves. Or: Tabarna Arabic for Taprobane (Ceylon)of Ptolemy. (Kenzheakhmet p113)

6 喝卒 He zu ?? (Pronounced: gou-tzoe) I think: Djeziret-el-Qeroud (pronounced el goe-roo) island overtaken by monkeys. For this see my web-page for Ibn Said al Maghribi (1250) Kitab Djoughrafiya.

7 失 尔剌 秃里 那 Shi er la tu li na ?? with Chu ssu pen (1320) : 失阿剌 秃里 赤 Si a la tu li shi (Shih-a-la t'u-li-ch'ih) The Chinese web-book of the: Ancient Seven Seas Gazetteer (http://www.world10k.com/blog/?p=1335) on page 1335 translates 秃里赤 Tu li shi as: ‘place of those made naked black and red’ and gives a list of books in which it is used. I think this must be translated here just as Sofala, a place of those made naked black and red.

8 冒西哈比那 Mao xi ha bi na ?? appears also at Chu ssu pen.

According to Nurlan Kenzheakhmet: 昌西哈必剌 Chang xi ha bi la = Zanj-I-Qanbala (Zanj of Qanbalu).

9 顆細打賓 Ke xi da bin ?? I think: Djezir Arin = dome of the earth. For this see my web-page for Ibn Said al Maghribi (1250) Kitab Djoughrafiya.

10 with Chu ssu pen and Ch'uan Chin and Li Hui: 哇阿哇 Wa a wa : according to my opinion this is to be Waq Waq.

-All the placenames that are transliterations are found in the work of Ibn Said al Maghribi (1250) Kitab Djoughrafiya. And Ibn Said makes them also all into islands off the east coast of Africa, except for Sofala which he puts on the main land.

-The names that give other information are in accordance with the information given by Muslim geographers. These are 4: Ti ba nu (Diba-nu) Island slaves. 7 Si a la tu li shi Sofala, a place of those made naked black and red.

Map of the islands on the very bottom of the map on the edge between Africa and Asia.

These islands exist also on several copies of the Kangnido’s. And they have as many inscriptions.

Of the three big islands on this map the lowest is East Africa, above it Arabia island, and above it South India island according to the

Chinese sources. The explanation is that the Chinese sailors knew that if you cross the ocean starting from the Asian continent you

come to South India crossing again you arrive in South Arabia and crossing again in East Africa.

I do not know the inscriptions here but those on the Kangnido maps give names of places for respectively East Africa, South Arabia


Commerce Revolution

Hong Wu’s prejudice against the merchant class did not diminish the numbers of traders. On the contrary, commerce was on much greater scale than in previous centuries and continued to increase, as the growing industries needed the cooperation of the merchants. Poor soil in some provinces and over-population were key forces that led many to enter the trade markets. A book called “Tu pien hsin shu” gives a detailed description about the activities of merchants at that time. In the end, the Hong Wu policy of banning trade only acted to hinder the government from taxing private traders. Hong Wu did continue to conduct limited trade with merchants for necessities such as salts. For example, the government entered into contracts with the merchants for the transport of grain to the borders. In payments, the government issued salt tickets to the merchants, who could then sell them to the people. These deals were highly profitable for the merchants.

Private trade continued in secret because the coast was impossible to patrol and police adequately, and because local officials and scholar-gentry families in the coastal provinces actually colluded with merchants to build ships and trade. The smuggling was mainly with Japan and Southeast Asia, and it picked up after silver lodes were discovered in Japan in the early 1500s. Since silver was the main form of money in China, lots of people were willing to take the risk of sailing to Japan or Southeast Asia to sell products for Japanese silver, or to invite Japanese traders to come to the Chinese coast and trade in secret ports. The Ming court’s attempt to stop this ‘piracy‘ was the source of the wokou wars of the 1550s and 1560s. After private trade with Southeast Asia was legalized again in 1567, there was no more black market. Trade with Japan was still banned, but merchants could simply get Japanese silver in Southeast Asia. Also, Spanish Peruvian silver was entering the market in huge quantities, and there was no restriction on trading for it in Manila. The widespread introduction of silver into China helped monetize the economy (replacing barter with currency), further facilitating trade.


Contents

Little is known about this world map. Its author is unknown and the date of creation is unclear. The map was created in China sometime during the Ming Dynasty and handed over to the new rulers of China, the Manchus. It has been kept on the Imperial Palace was called Qingzi Qian Yitong Tu (清字簽一統圖) in some catalogs. [ 2 ] It is currently kept in protective storage at the First Historical Archive of China, in Beijing. A full-sized digital replica was made for the South African government in 2002. [ 3 ]

The place names of China on the map reflect the political situation in 1389, or the 22nd year of the reign of the Hongwu Emperor. Thus some Chinese scholars concluded that it was indeed created in 1389 or little later. [ 1 ] Others maintain a cautious attitude, suggesting that what was revised in 1389 is probably a source map of the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu and that the Da Ming Hun Yi Tu itself was created much later. [ 4 ]

In either case, it is certain that the Ming Dynasty created a map around 1389. Japanese scholar Miya Noriko speculated on the motivation behind it: Although the Hongwu Emperor, first of the Ming dynasty, drove the Mongol Yuan Dynasty out of China in 1368, Mongols maintained military power that posed a real threat to the new dynasty. The situation was changed in 1388 when Uskhal Khan of Northern Yuan was killed and the Khubilaid line of succession was terminated. The Ming Dynasty may have celebrated this historic event by creating a new map. [ 4 ]


Sunday, 16 May 2021

Peta Nusantara Diciplak Eropah?

Gambar 1: Replika globe abad ke-16 pihak Eropah yang mengandungi peta Asia & Nusantara.

Setibanya Portugis di Selat Melaka mereka telah mendapatkan bantuan dari pelayar-pelayar tempatan untuk memudahkan perjalanan laut mereka ke serata Nusantara dan kemudian ke Cina. Secara khususnya, rekod Portugis memberikan gambaran mengenai peta besar yang diperoleh dari seorang jurumudi Jawa. Peta ini diperoleh selepas tumpasnya Kesultanan Melayu Melaka pada tahun 1511. Ia menunjukkan sebahagian besar lakaran kedudukan kepulauan Nusantara. Apa yang meranjatkan Portugis adalah jurumudi Jawa tersebut juga memiliki carta nautika yang menggambarkan arah angin, garis rhumb, dan laluan pelayaran bagi ke Cina, Korea, dan Ryukyu. Selain dari itu, terdapat peta-peta lain yang menggambarkan Tanjung Pengharapan, Brazil, Laut Merah, Laut Parsi, dan juga Portugal.

Dirujuk silang catatan pengembara Itali bernama Ludovico di Varthema peta serupa pernah digunakan seorang nakhoda Melayu ketika membawa Varthema dari Borneo ke pulau Jawa sekitar tahun 1505. Varthema adalah merupakan orang Eropah pertama yang tiba di Melaka ketika itu. Menurut Varthema nakhoda Melayu tersebut belayar berpandukan carta nautika yang mempunyai garisan rhumb dan dibaca dengan kompas magnet. Nakhoda Melayu tersebut juga dikatakan mempamir kemahiran dalam belayar dengan menggunakan buruj bintang. Juga dikatakan carta nautika nakhoda Melayu tersebut merujuk kepada kewujudan pulau paling selatan yang kini diketahui sebagai pantai utara Australia.

Berbalik kepada peta jurumudi Jawa, menurut Alfonso de Albuquerque, peta yang dirampas di Melaka tersebut tenggelam bersama Flor de la Mar lebih kurang 480 batu jaraknya dari pelabuhan Melaka setelah 6 hari pelayaran. Selain dari peta, sebuah Jong juga dibawa dari Melaka. Jong tersebut dinaiki 60 orang tukang kayu dan pandai kapal Jawa bersama keluarga mereka. Jong yang juga membawa harta rampasan dari Istana Sultan Melaka tersebut selamat dilarikan ke Pasai ketika kesemua kapal Portugis menumpukan perhatian kepada usaha menyelamatkan Flor de la Mar.

Sebelum tenggelam bersama-sama Flor de la Mar, peta besar jurumudi Jawa tersebut telah disalin oleh jurumudi Portugis bernama Francisco Rodrigues dan dipecah-bahagi kepada 178 folio. Peta-peta ini dianggar disalin di dalam beberapa naskah di Melaka sekitar Ogos-Disember 1511. (Gambar 2-4). Saya percaya peta inilah yang telah dijadikan panduan nakhoda kapal Flor de la Mar untuk pulang ke Goa melalui Selat Sunda.

Gambar 2: Peta folio No. 34 yang dilukis semula oleh Francisco Rodrigues berdasarkan peta jurumudi Jawa dari Melaka.
Sumber: Library of the French National Assembly, Paris.

Gambar 3: Peta folio No. 38 yang dilukis semula oleh Francisco Rodrigues berdasarkan peta jurumudi Jawa dari Melaka.
Sumber: Library of the French National Assembly, Paris.

Gambar 4: Peta Kepulauan Nusantara hasil gabungan folio No. 33 hingga 39 yang dilukis semula oleh Francisco Rodrigues berdasarkan peta jurumudi Jawa dari Melaka.
Sumber: J.H.F Sollewlin Gelpke (1995).

Rekod tentang kewujudan peta besar jurumudi Jawa tersebut juga dibuktikan dalam surat dari Alfonso de Albuquerque kepada rajanya, Dom Manuel, bertarikh 1.4.1512. Saya petik sebahagian dari kandungan surat tersebut:-

Pada dasarnya peta jurumudi Jawa dari Melaka ini menjadi asas kepada kemahiran navigasi Portugis ke kepulauan Maluku, Siam, New Guinea, Kemboja, Taiwan, Cina, dan Jepun. Malah tidak disangkal bahawa peta-peta awal Nusantara ini diciplak untuk menaiktaraf rekod peta-peta Portugis seperti peta Lopo Homem-Reineis / Atlas Miller (1519), yang kemudian diadaptasi kepada rekod pemetaan kuasa-kuasa Eropah yang lain seperti peta Willem Lodewijcksz (1595), peta Petrus Plancius (1596) dan peta Theodor de Bry (1598).

484 tahun kemudian iaitu pada tahun 1995 seorang pengkaji bernama J.H.F Sollewlin Gelpke membuat cadangan pembetulan terhadap carta-carta Francisco Rodrigues yang ditiru dari jurumudi Jawa tersebut. Setelah diperbetulkan, didapati deskripsi dan kedudukan yang lebih jelas wujud tentang Semenanjung Tanah Melayu, Sumatera, Siam, Vietnam, Kemboja dan selatan Cina (Gambar 5).

Gambar 5: Cadangan pembetulan terhadap peta folio 34 & 38 Francisco Rodrigues oleh J.H.F Sollewlin Gelpke (1995).

Apa yang menarik, setelah diperbetulkan, terdapat lakaran sebuah kota yang wujud di Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Gelpke mencadangkan bahawa ianya mungkin kota Melaka akan tetapi beliau juga menyatakan ianya lebih ke arah timur laut. Memandangkan nama Melaka tidak dicatat dalam peta tersebut, kemungkinan salinan asal peta ini dibuat sebelum kota Melaka ditubuhkan. Dari mata kasar, ianya lebih ke arah sekitar kawasan hutan simpan Endau-Rompin. Mungkinkah ianya Kota Gelanggi (Klang Gio) atau "perbendaharaan permata" yang dicatat dalam Sulalatus Salatin? Apa yang jelas adalah kota ini kelihatan boleh diakses melalui Rio Fermoso iaitu gelaran Portugis bagi Sungai Batu Pahat.

Walaupun dirumus Gelpke peta jurumudi Jawa ini kononnya dipelajari dari ahli navigasi Cina, namun pada pandangan saya apa yang diciplak Francisco Rodrigues langsung tidak sama dengan peta-peta Cina zaman Ming iaitu peta Da Ming Hunyi Tu (c.1390), peta navigasi Zheng He (c. 1421-1430), peta Luo Hongxian (c. 1579), dan peta Mao Kun (c. 1628).

Gelpke juga secara amnya merumuskan peta jurumudi Jawa adalah sebenarnya lebih terperinci tetapi gagal disalin dengan sempurna oleh Francisco Rodrigues. Dari segi lojik, dua kesimpulan boleh dibuat disini. Pertama, ianya memang gagal disalin dengan sempurna oleh Francisco Rodrigues. Kedua, dan yang lebih berkemungkinan adalah peta asal jurumudi Jawa sengaja dilakar dalam keadaan tidak lengkap dan mengelirukan demi menyembunyikan lokasi-lokasi strategik dari dikenalpasti musuh.

Seperti yang dirumus Mo Razzi (2016), Tun Seri Lanang dalam menulis Sulalatus Salatin mungkin telah dengan sengaja menyembunyikan jalan penarikan yang sebenar. Ini adalah kerana Pulau Keban (kini Pulau Aceh) yang dirujuk Sulalatus Salatin adalah lebih berdekatan dengan Sungai Endau. Perairan Pulau Keban ini adalah tempat Laksamana Hang Nadim dikatakan bertempur dengan tentera Sultan Pahang semasa Laksamana Hang Nadim melarikan Tun Teja. Dalam Hikayat Hang Tuah (HHT) pula, Laksamana Hang Tuah lah dikatakan melarikan Tun Teja, dan pertempuran dalam HHT pula dicatat berlaku di Pulau Tinggi. Mo Razzi merumuskan bahawa Tun Teja dilarikan dari Pahang ke Melaka melalui jalan penarikan yang menghubungkan Sungai Endau, Sungai Sembrong, dan keluar ke Selat Melaka melalui Sungai Batu Pahat (Rio Fermoso).

Menurut Mohd Azlan Sharif (2017) pula terdapat banyak peninggalan Batu Aceh di pinggir Sungai Batu Pahat yang menunjukkan kepentingan sungai tersebut sebagai laluan pintas dari Selat Melaka ke pantai timur Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Sebagai contoh, Batu Aceh yang ditemui di Bukit Inas dipercayai berusia 600 tahun (Gambar 6).

Gambar 6: Batu Aceh di Bukit Inas, Batu Pahat.
Sumber: Johorkini

Melalui temubual, Mohd Azlan Sharif juga menyatakan terdapat catatan dalam peta Barent Langenes & Cornelis Claesz (c. 1600) yang memberi deskripsi kepada sebuah penempatan yang dipanggil Padram. (Gambar 7). Beliau merumuskan nama tersebut diabadikan sebagai nama Bandar Penggaram, Batu Pahat. Apa yang menarik seperti yang dikaji oleh Gelpke, kedudukan Padram dalam peta tahun 1600 tersebut juga kelihatan boleh diakses dari Sungai Batu Pahat.

Gambar 7: Peta Melaka oleh Barent Langenes & Cornelis Claesz. c. 1600


Selain dari menjadi sumber utama kepada pemetaan kepulauan Nusantara oleh penjajah Eropah, saya percaya peta jurumudi Jawa yang diperoleh Alfonso de Albuquerque pada 1511 ini adalah bukti yang menunjukkan kemahiran dan amalan pelaut-pelaut Nusantara dalam menyembunyikan penempatan dan laluan strategik melalui peta yang sengaja dikelirukan. Secara amnya, peta-peta ini perlu dirungkai (decoded) sebelum dapat dibaca dengan sempurna. Juga dari apa yang diciplak oleh Francisco Rodrigues, peta-peta asal adalah sepenuhnya hasil rekaan dan kepandaian jurumudi dan nakhoda Nusantara dan bukannya berasaskan peta dari Cina.


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