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27 February 1943

27 February 1943

27 February 1943



War in the Air

Eighth Air Force Heavy Bomber Mission No. 38: 78 aircraft sent to attack Brest U-boat base. No aircraft lost.

North Africa

Germans launch an attack on Hunt's Gap, Tunisia

Finnish raid on river Svir (Syväri) 27 February 1943

Post by Lammio » 23 Mar 2010, 08:58

On the night between 26 and 27 February 1943, from 1:03 to 2:15 AM, a detachment (taistelupartio) from Infantry Regiment 45 made a commando attack (väkivaltainen tiedustelu) on Soviet positions across the ice
on the River Svir (Syväri).

IR 45 was on River Svir (Syväri) near Lake Segesa and Kovgenitsa village.

Its right border was a line from the east end of lake Segesa - lake 15.8 - brook on the west end of Kovgenitsa village - point 18.6.

Its left border was road Vanha Syväri [litterally: "Old Svir"] - Lotinapelto [1] from Luostari ["Monastery"] to Rudipuro brook - Rudipuro brook - Lake Kuurojärvi - Maksa station.

The attack took place near Hevossaari ["Horse Island"].

On the Russian side there were parts of Infantry Regiments
719, 9 and 452 which were part of 67 Division.

The data is from the war diary of IR 45 (SPK 11969: Rykmentin käsky 12.6.1942). I have spelled the place names as they are in the war diary.

SPK 12060 says that Finnish casualties were 1 killed and Russian casualties were 23 killed and 3 taken prisoners.

Is there anything about the attack on Russian sources?
Unfortunately I can not read Russian so I need a translation (Finnish or English). I can return the favour by translating Finnish version of the raid into English.

[1] Old Finnish encyclopedia says that this is "Lodejnoje polje" in Russian.

The Allies’ invasion of Italy and the Italian volte-face, 1943

From Sicily, the Allies had a wide choice of directions for their next offensive. Calabria, the “toe” of Italy, was the nearest and most obvious possible destination, and the “shin” was also vulnerable and the “heel” was also very attractive. The two army corps of Montgomery’s 8th Army crossed the Strait of Messina and landed on the “toe” of Italy on September 3, 1943 but, though the initial resistance was practically negligible, they made only very slow progress, as the terrain, with only two good roads running up the coasts of the great Calabrian “toe” prevented the deployment of large forces. On the day of the landing, however, the Italian government at last agreed to the Allies’ secret terms for a capitulation. It was understood that Italy would be treated with leniency in direct proportion to the part that it would take, as soon as possible, in the war against Germany. The capitulation was announced on September 8.

The landing on the “shin” of Italy, at Salerno, just south of Naples, was begun on September 9, by the mixed U.S.–British 5th Army, under U.S. General Mark Clark. Transported by 700 ships, 55,000 men made the initial assault, and 115,000 more followed up. At first they were faced only by the German 16th Panzer Division but Kesselring, though he had only eight weak divisions to defend all southern and central Italy, had had time to plan since the fall of Mussolini and had been expecting a blow at the “shin.” His counterstroke made the success of the Salerno landing precarious for six days, and it was not until October 1 that the 5th Army entered Naples.

By contrast, the much smaller landing on the “heel” of Italy, which had been made on September 2 (the day preceding the invasion of the “toe”), took the Germans by surprise. Notwithstanding the paucity of its strength in men and in equipment, the expedition captured two good ports, Taranto and Brindisi, in a very short time but it lacked the resources to advance promptly. Nearly a fortnight passed before another small force was landed at Bari, the next considerable port north of Brindisi, to push thence unopposed into Foggia.

It was the threat to their rear from the “heel” of Italy and from Foggia that had induced the Germans to fall back from their positions defending Naples against the 5th Army. When the Italian government, in pursuance of a Badoglio–Eisenhower agreement of September 29, declared war against Germany on October 13, 1943, Kesselring was already receiving reinforcements and consolidating the German hold on central and northern Italy. The 5th Army was checked temporarily on the Volturno River, only 20 miles north of Naples, then more lastingly on the Garigliano River, while the 8th Army, having made its way from Calabria up the Adriatic coast, was likewise held on the Sangro River. Autumn and midwinter passed without the Allies’ making any notable impression on the Germans’ Gustav Line, which ran for 100 miles from the mouth of the Garigliano through Cassino and over the Apennines to the mouth of the Sangro.

Koestler: A Pathetic ‘Knight’ Who Lost His Armor

From Labor Action, Vol. 7 No. 8, 22 February 1943, p.ل.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

I cannot recall having read a sadder article for, a long time than Arthur Koestler’s A Challenge to “Knights in Rusty Armor” in the New York Times Magazine Section of February 14. Koestler is the writer and ex-revolutionist whose fame rests on that exciting and provocative portrait of Stalinist bureaucratism, the novel Darkness at Noon. He writes this article frankly as a member of the “left intelligentsia,” which, in recent years, has abandoned its Marxist adherence in order to support the imperialist war, but which still maintains a sort of vague hope that somehow, somewhere socialism will result from the present world mess.

Koestler is refreshing because honest: he admits that which has been becoming completely apparent to the left intellectuals, but which they have refused to admit with an unholy fear – the war shows itself, on the part of the Allies, as well as the Axis, to be nothing more than a conservative struggle for the maintenance of the capitalist status quo. It is this fact which impels Koestler to indulge in the weary, dispirited reflections contained in his article.

Admissions That Buttress Marxism

“. The nearer victory comes in sight, the clearer the character of the war reveals itself as what the Tories always said it was – a war for national survival, a war in defense of certain conservative nineteenth century ideals, and not, what I and my friends of the left said it was – a revolutionary civil war in Europe on the Spanish pattern.”

“Let us be frank while we rejoice over the victory of our arms, let us recognize the defeat of our aims.”

“The American elections, the burlesque Darlaniad, the melancholy Crippsiad and other events make it increasingly clear that the scales are moving more and more to the conservative side, almost in direct proportion to the approach of victory . Thus, if nothing unexpected happens, the coming victory will be a conservative victory and lead to a conservative peace. It will produce no lasting solution of the minority problem in the European jigsaw puzzle. It will provide no cure for the inherent disease of the capitalistic system.”

These are, you will readily see, some rather remarkable admissions, especially from one of those who, not so long ago, were seeing a peaceful social revolution in England as a result of the war and who waxed indignant with old-fashioned Marxists who still dared speak of such things as imperialist wars. But here, out of the mouth of one of the most intelligent of these war-baby intellectuals, comes the very admissions that buttress our Marxist case against them.

Thus, if it be true that “our aims” (i.e., a better world) have been defeated even though “our arms” (the Allied armies) approach victory, then what will be the significance and value of that victory? Koestler is not bashful about specifying the signs that “our aims” – which were NEVER the aims of those who control the conduct of the war, but to which they partly paid vague lip service when they were in dire straits – have met defeat. “He understands the mockery of democracy which is the pro-fascist and anti-Semitic regime of Darlan-Giraud-Peyrouton in North Africa he understands the mockery of national independence which is the British attitude toward India.

A Man Without Armor – Rusty or Shiny

And yet this one-time socialist intellectual, writing as if the very life-blood of his former beliefs had been sucked out of him, still grasps onto the slippery armor of the imperialist cause, even though he cuts his fingers and shames his heart in doing so. And why? Because he hopes that with victory there will come, at least, a “certain minimum of liberty, decency, security . a new, perhaps slightly improved, edition of the pre-Hitlerian old order . ”

But the two phrases contradict each other, and the second answers the first. Koestler and his friends know that there “was neither security nor decency, and hardly enough liberty in the “pre-Hitlerian order.” He no doubt wrote plenty of articles in his day to prove that. And Koestler knows that if this is all that we can expect from victory – “that it will provide no cure for the inherent disease of the capitalist system” – then we must face the dreadful prospect of once more living through the same nightmare: Versailles, inflation, and eventually the new Hitlerism and the Third World War!

It is a sorry and pathetic spectacle, indeed, to watch a man like Koestler state all his disillusions in public print, with the partial purpose of berating those leftist intellectuals who, through cynicism or naiveté, still speak of the war as a crusade for a better world. The pro-war intellectuals are acquiring a nervous political itch: their eyes tell them that their tongues are lying.

A few, like Koestler, have the honesty, to admit: No, it is no crusade, it is the same old game, and there’s nothing new or wonderful to expect. That Koestler, who has lived through so many revolutionary defeats that it has become part of his psychological and political makeup, cannot see his way to return to the socialist camp is more a matter of pity than indignation. He may speak of us as “knights in rusty armor with a well-thumbed handbook of Marx-Engels quotations” which he feels are of but “modest use on this topsy-turvy battleground today” but the words we have quoted from his article show that he has NO political armor, rusty or shiny.

Part 2: February - August 1943

“We sailed from Liverpool in the STRATHMORE. After two weeks in the Atlantic we arrived at the west coast of Africa on March 9th, my 21st birthday. The only ship I’d sailed on before was the Mersey ferry. The weather in the Atlantic was pretty bad, but I wasn’t sea sick as most of the troops on board were. I worked on the ship down below in the food stores. We were about the same level as the engine room, so if we’d been torpedoed we would have had no chance of getting out. We slept on F deck, which was two decks below the water line. The food stores were on K deck, a further four decks below that.

Crossing the Equator for the first time there was trouble on board. We all had to sleep below, in case of aircraft spotting anyone smoking on deck. It was so hot we couldn’t breathe. There were 5000 troops on a ship which was only intended to carry 1500 passengers in peacetime. We all came on deck for air, but the Captain ordered us below again. Some refused to go, and the Captain threatened to charge us all with mutiny on the high seas if we didn’t obey. We left about 1000 troops at Durban, so things were a bit better after that. The rest of us were allowed ashore for four hours after being on the ship for six weeks.

We left Durban and, leaving the rest of the convoy, diverted up to Aden, then continued up the Red Sea to Mitsiwa in Eritrea. When we left there we had to get to Bombay on our own.”

“The first thing that hits you when you get off the ship in Bombay is the heat and the smell. You want to drink water all the time. We were allowed ashore for about four hours. After fighting our way past beggars outside the docks, all the street traders came at us. They knew we were just off the ship and tried to sell us all kinds of things. We were told to tell them very politely to ‘go away’ (in Army language!), which we did. We were very shocked when one of the traders pulled out a large knife and chased my mate and me around the bazaar.

We met an old soldier who had been out there quite a few years. He told us to stand still and let them catch up to us, they think you’re scared of them when you run away. So we stood there and one of the traders came up to us and stood about five feet away. The old soldier said ‘go away’. After this we got brave, and going back to the ship any trader who came near was just told to ‘go away’. It worked, and this was our first lesson on how to survive in India.

Next day we boarded a train for Ranchi in eastern India, a three day journey. The carriages had wooden seats and no window glass as it was too hot. At night we closed the openings with wooden slats. It was like sitting in front of an oven with the door open. The engine of the train was like an old American steam loco. When we stopped for about half an hour, we took a dixie with dry tea in it up to the engine, and the driver pulled a lever and boiling water came out of a spout to fill the dixie up and brew the tea.

When we arrived at Ranchi station we were loaded onto three lorries and driven over dust roads and tracks for about five miles. We finally stopped in a big paddy field and the officer-in-charge said, this is your camp, your tents are over there, put them up. It was about 110°F. There were about 500 troops in the camp and we were all going mad for water. We were told it would take about a week before we got used to being without water all the time.

When we got the tents up and all the kit in, we lined up for something to eat. We were given ‘bully beef’ and what we called ‘dog biscuits’ — dry biscuits about three inches square — and a mug of tea. We got bully beef every day, sometimes with Indian potatoes, which were very small, full of eyes and never peeled.

The Indians were bringing bacon, eggs and tomatoes round and we were all buying them. Only later did we realise that these were our own rations which, instead of being collected for us, were being cooked and sold back to us. Needless to say we weren’t impressed, so we kicked them out and threatened to report whoever was in charge of the camp to HQ.

Soon we were told to pack up and taken back to the railway station, where we boarded a train for the two day trip to Gaya. This place was even hotter than the last, about 120°F, but at least it was a proper army camp.

The Sergeant Major was a regular soldier of some 10 years standing, and had been out east for so long that we reckoned the sun had got to him, such was his behaviour. We nicknamed him CHIN STRAP as we all had a leather strap on the rim of our hats, but he had an extra one under his chin.

He had us on parade every morning, standing to attention the heat was so bad even some of the Indians used to faint. He said we would get worse than this in the jungle. We did four days of route marches through paddy fields, 20 miles each through the heat of the day. On the first day one bloke died of sunstroke, then another on the second day. During the march on the fourth day, one bloke collapsed with sunstroke and another two said they felt ill. All three were left behind in the paddy field. By nightfall they had not returned to camp, so a search party was sent out next morning which found all of them dead.

He said we were going on a night march, and some of the blokes said they would get rid of Chin Strap down a well, as payback for the blokes who died. He found out about the threat and the march was cancelled. One bloke in the camp had his leg blown off, and was on a stretcher all the time. He wasn’t allowed to go home, they said he was still fit(!). Chin Strap even threatened to have him out on parade one day, on his stretcher.”

“Finally after a few more weeks we were put on another train to Comilla. This was a jungle training camp, though it felt more like a concentration camp. We were now about 60 miles from the Japanese and using live ammunition. A Jap patrol was caught just outside Comilla, having infiltrated through the British and Indian lines. There was a big ammunition dump in the camp which they were probably after.

In Comilla an officer gave us a talk on what we could expect in Burma. He said if you survive the snakes (from 18” long to 30ft pythons), crocodiles (can be 25ft long), leeches, mosquitoes, flies, red ants, black panthers, jackals and hyenas, you then have to deal with the Japs. You can’t see them, but you feel they’re watching you all the time, sometimes from in front and sometimes from behind. You don’t speak unless absolutely necessary and never above a whisper. If you see a Jap at night, don’t shoot or you’ll give away your position and you won’t see daylight.

There were monkeys living in the trees nearby. Once they came down and stole our tins of bully beef and milk. They took them back into the trees and tried to bite them open, and when this failed they threw the tins back at us. At a place called Elephant Point a herd of wild elephants stampeded through the camp. We dived behind the trees and luckily no-one was killed. Another time we found our rations missing, it turned out they were being stolen during the night by some Japs who has been cut off from their main troop.

We were now being posted to our regiments in Burma. Every day on parade the RSM would call out a group of names, and after about a month my name was called. We were kitted out with an all green uniform — even down to the underwear — plus bush hats, rifles etc. We had been in India for four months, and the hard time we had endured was merely preparation for what was to come. We were so worked up we hated the Army, India and each other.”

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The Rise and Fall of Nikola Tesla and his Tower

Nikola Tesla. Image courtesy of LIbrary of Congress

By the end of his brilliant and tortured life, the Serbian physicist, engineer and inventor Nikola Tesla was penniless and living in a small New York City hotel room. He spent days in a park surrounded by the creatures that mattered most to him—pigeons—and his sleepless nights working over mathematical equations and scientific problems in his head. That habit would confound scientists and scholars for decades after he died, in 1943. His inventions were designed and perfected in his imagination.

Tesla believed his mind to be without equal, and he wasn’t above chiding his contemporaries, such as Thomas Edison, who once hired him. “If Edison had a needle to find in a haystack,” Tesla once wrote, “he would proceed at once with the diligence of the bee to examine straw after straw until he found the object of his search. I was a sorry witness of such doing that a little theory and calculation would have saved him ninety percent of his labor.”

But what his contemporaries may have been lacking in scientific talent (by Tesla’s estimation), men like Edison and George Westinghouse clearly possessed the one trait that Tesla did not—a mind for business. And in the last days of America’s Gilded Age, Nikola Tesla made a dramatic attempt to change the future of communications and power transmission around the world.  He managed to convince J.P. Morgan that he was on the verge of a breakthrough, and the financier gave Tesla more than $150,000 to fund what would become a gigantic, futuristic and startling tower in the middle of Long Island, New York. In 1898, as Tesla’s plans to create a worldwide wireless transmission system became known, Wardenclyffe Tower would be Tesla’s last chance to claim the recognition and wealth that had always escaped him.

Nikola Tesla was born in modern-day Croatia in 1856 his father, Milutin, was a priest of the Serbian Orthodox Church. From an early age, he demonstrated the obsessiveness that would puzzle and amuse those around him. He could memorize entire books and store logarithmic tables in his brain. He picked up languages easily, and he could work through days and nights on only a few hours sleep.

At the age of 19, he was studying electrical engineering at the Polytechnic Institute at Graz in Austria, where he quickly established himself as a star student. He found himself in an ongoing debate with a professor over perceived design flaws in the direct-current (DC) motors that were being demonstrated in class. “In attacking the problem again I almost regretted that the struggle was soon to end,” Tesla later wrote. “I had so much energy to spare. When I undertook the task it was not with a resolve such as men often make. With me it was a sacred vow, a question of life and death. I knew that I would perish if I failed. Now I felt that the battle was won. Back in the deep recesses of the brain was the solution, but I could not yet give it outward expression.”

He would spend the next six years of his life “thinking” about electromagnetic fields and a hypothetical motor powered by alternate-current that would and should work. The thoughts obsessed him, and he was unable to focus on his schoolwork. Professors at the university warned Tesla’s father that the young scholar’s working and sleeping habits were killing him. But rather than finish his studies, Tesla became a gambling addict, lost all his tuition money, dropped out of school and suffered a nervous breakdown. It would not be his last.

In 1881, Tesla moved to Budapest, after recovering from his breakdown, and he was walking through a park with a friend, reciting poetry, when a vision came to him. There in the park, with a stick, Tesla drew a crude diagram in the dirt—a motor using the principle of rotating magnetic fields created by two or more alternating currents. While AC electrification had been employed before, there would never be a practical, working motor run on alternating current until he invented his induction motor several years later.

In June 1884, Tesla sailed for New York City and arrived with four cents in his pocket and a letter of recommendation from Charles Batchelor—a former employer—to Thomas Edison, which was purported to say, “My Dear Edison: I know two great men and you are one of them. The other is this young man!”

A meeting was arranged, and once Tesla described the engineering work he was doing, Edison, though skeptical, hired him. According to Tesla, Edison offered him $50,000 if he could improve upon the DC generation plants Edison favored. Within a few months, Tesla informed the American inventor that he had indeed improved upon Edison’s motors. Edison, Tesla noted, refused to pay up. “When you become a full-fledged American, you will appreciate an American joke,” Edison told him.

Tesla promptly quit and took a job digging ditches. But it wasn’t long before word got out that Tesla’s AC motor was worth investing in, and the Western Union Company put Tesla to work in a lab not far from Edison’s office, where he designed AC power systems that are still used around the world. “The motors I built there,” Tesla said, “were exactly as I imagined them. I made no attempt to improve the design, but merely reproduced the pictures as they appeared to my vision, and the operation was always as I expected.”

Tesla patented his AC motors and power systems, which were said to be the most valuable inventions since the telephone. Soon, George Westinghouse, recognizing that Tesla’s designs might be just what he needed in his efforts to unseat Edison’s DC current, licensed his patents for $60,000 in stocks and cash and royalties based on how much electricity Westinghouse could sell. Ultimately, he won the “War of the Currents,” but at a steep cost in litigation and competition for both Westinghouse and Edison’s General Electric Company.

Wardenclyffe Tower. Photo: Wikipedia

Fearing ruin, Westinghouse begged Tesla for relief from the royalties Westinghouse agreed to. “Your decision determines the fate of the Westinghouse Company,” he said. Tesla, grateful to the man who had never tried to swindle him, tore up the royalty contract, walking away from millions in royalties that he was already owed and billions that would have accrued in the future. He would have been one of the wealthiest men in the world—a titan of the Gilded Age.

His work with electricity reflected just one facet of his fertile mind. Before the turn of the 20th century, Tesla had invented a powerful coil that was capable of generating high voltages and frequencies, leading to new forms of light, such as neon and fluorescent, as well as X-rays. Tesla also discovered that these coils, soon to be called “Tesla Coils,” made it possible to send and receive radio signals. He quickly filed for American patents in 1897, beating the Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi to the punch.

Tesla continued to work on his ideas for wireless transmissions when he proposed to J.P. Morgan his idea of a wireless globe. After Morgan put up the $150,000 to build the giant transmission tower, Tesla promptly hired the noted architect Stanford White of McKim, Mead, and White in New York. White, too, was smitten with Tesla’s idea. After all, Tesla was the highly acclaimed man behind Westinghouse’s success with alternating current, and when Tesla talked, he was persuasive.

“As soon as completed, it will be possible for a business man in New York to dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type at his office in London or elsewhere,” Tesla said at the time. “He will be able to call up, from his desk, and talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe, without any change whatever in the existing equipment. An inexpensive instrument, not bigger than a watch, will enable its bearer to hear anywhere, on sea or land, music or song, the speech of a political leader, the address of an eminent man of science, or the sermon of an eloquent clergyman, delivered in some other place, however distant. In the same manner any picture, character, drawing or print can be transferred from one to another place. Millions of such instruments can be operated from but one plant of this kind.”

White quickly got to work designing Wardenclyffe Tower in 1901, but soon after construction began it became apparent that Tesla was going to run out of money before it was finished. An appeal to Morgan for more money proved fruitless, and in the meantime investors were rushing to throw their money behind Marconi. In December 1901, Marconi successfully sent a signal from England to Newfoundland. Tesla grumbled that the Italian was using 17 of his patents, but litigation eventually favored Marconi and the commercial damage was done.  (The U.S. Supreme Court ultimately upheld Tesla’s claims, clarifying Tesla’s role in the invention of the radio—but not until 1943, after he died.) Thus the Italian inventor was credited as the inventor of radio and became rich. Wardenclyffe Tower became a 186-foot-tall relic (it would be razed in 1917), and the defeat—Tesla’s worst—led to another of his breakdowns. ”It is not a dream,” Tesla said, “it is a simple feat of scientific electrical engineering, only expensive—blind, faint-hearted, doubting world!”

Guglielmo Marconi in 1903. Photo: Library of Congress

By 1912, Tesla began to withdraw from that doubting world. He was clearly showing signs of obsessive-compulsive disorder, and was potentially a high-functioning autistic. He became obsessed with cleanliness and fixated on the number three he began shaking hands with people and washing his hands—all done in sets of three. He had to have 18 napkins on his table during meals, and would count his steps whenever he walked anywhere. He claimed to have an abnormal sensitivity to sounds, as well as an acute sense of sight, and he later wrote that he had “a violent aversion against the earrings of women,” and “the sight of a pearl would almost give me a fit.”

Near the end of his life, Tesla became fixated on pigeons, especially a specific white female, which he claimed to love almost as one would love a human being. One night, Tesla claimed the white pigeon visited him through an open window at his hotel, and he believed the bird had come to tell him she was dying. He saw “two powerful beans of light” in the bird’s eyes, he later said. “Yes, it was a real light, a powerful, dazzling, blinding light, a light more intense than I had ever produced by the most powerful lamps in my laboratory.” The pigeon died in his arms, and the inventor claimed that in that moment, he knew that he had finished his life’s work.

Nikola Tesla would go on to make news from time to time while living on the 33rd floor of the New Yorker Hotel. In 1931 he made the cover of Time magazine, which featured his inventions on his 75th birthday. And in 1934, the New York Times reported that Tesla was working on a “Death Beam” capable of knocking 10,000 enemy airplanes out of the sky. He hoped to fund a prototypical defensive weapon in the interest of world peace, but his appeals to J.P. Morgan Jr. and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain went nowhere. Tesla did, however, receive a $25,000 check from the Soviet Union, but the project languished.  He died in 1943, in debt, although Westinghouse had been paying his room and board at the hotel for years.

Books: Nikola Tesla, My Inventions: The Autobiography of Nikola Tesla, Hart Brothers, Pub., 1982. Margaret Cheney, Tesla: Man Out of Time, Touchstone, 1981.

The History of the Division of Juvenile Justice

California became a state. At this time, there were no correctional facilities for juveniles. Some consideration was given to the need for a reform school at that time, but none was authorized. Serious cases, about 300 boys under the age of 20, were sent to the state prisons at San Quentin (Marin County) and Folsom (Sacramento County) between 1850 and 1860. They included 12, 13, and 14-year-old boys.

The San Francisco Industrial School was founded on May 5, 1859 by an act of the California State Legislature. The school opened with a total of 48 boys and girls, ranging from 3-18 years of age and included a staff of six. It was run by a private board. Management could accept children from parents and police, as well as from the courts. The program consisted of six hours per day of school (classroom) and four hours per day work. Trade training was added later. Releases were obtained by (1) discharge, (2) indenture, and (3) leave of absence—a system very similar to present-day probation and/or parole.

The State Reform School for boys in Marysville was authorized and opened in 1861. Ages ranged from 8-18 years.

The State Reform School for Boys at Marysville closed due to lack of commitments. Twenty-eight boys were transferred to the San Francisco Industrial School. The State donated $10,000 to the San Francisco Industrial School and agreed to pay $15 in gold coin per month for each child at the school. During this year, girls in the Industrial School were transferred to the Magdalen Asylum in San Francisco.

The Legislature permitted commitments to the San Francisco Industrial School from the counties of Santa Clara, San Mateo, and Alameda.

The first “Probation Law” was enacted (Section 1203 of the California Penal Code).

The training ship Jamestown was transferred from the U.S. Navy to the City of San Francisco to supplement the San Francisco Industrial School. The ship was to provide training in seamanship and navigation for boys of eligible age. After six months, an examination was given and successful trainees were eligible for employment as seamen on regular merchant ships.

The training ship was returned to the Navy due to mismanagement and a hue and cry that the Jamestown was a training ship for criminals.

The Legislature enacted a law establishing two State reform schools. Both were part of the Division of Institutions, and both had trade training and academic classes. Commitments were made from Police Courts, Justice Courts, and Courts of Session for a specialized period of time or minority. These schools were: (1) Whittier State Reformatory (now Fred C. Nelles School in Whittier) and (2) the Preston School of Industry in Ione (Amador County).

The Whittier State Reformatory for Boys and Girls opened with an enrollment of 300 youths.

The San Francisco Industrial School closed and the Preston School of Industry opened.

The Legislature enacted law establishing juvenile courts.

All youths under the age of 18 were transferred out of San Quentin by legislative decree.

County juvenile halls were established.

The Ventura School for Girls was established and girls were transferred from the Whittier State Reformatory to Ventura.

The first acts of statewide supervision began: a Probation Office was created under the State Department of Social Welfare.

The Legislature authorized County Boards of Supervisors to establish forestry camps for delinquent youths.

The Youth Corrections Authority Act was adopted by the California Legislature. The law:

  1. Created a three-person commission appointed by the Governor and
    confirmed by the Senate
  2. Mandated acceptance of all commitments under 23 years of age,
    including those from juvenile court
  3. Added a section on delinquency prevention
  4. Authorized no authority over existing state institutions
  5. Appropriated $100,000 to run the Authority for two years

The Whittier School for Boys was renamed the Fred C. Nelles School in honor of the man who served as the facility’s superintendent from 1912 to 1927.

The Preston School of Industry, the Ventura School for Girls, and the Fred C. Nelles School for Boys were separated from the Division of Institutions and became part of the California Youth Authority (CYA).

The first youth committed under the Youth Corrections Authority Act—YA No. 00001—arrived at the new Youth Authority Unit, a diagnostic facility. The youth was transferred from San Quentin Prison, where he had been sent at age 14 after being convicted for second-degree murder. A “lifer,” he had shot an uncle during a quarrel over ranch chores.

The Youth Authority moved toward establishing camps, and a unit—Delinquency Prevention Services—was established.

Karl Holton was named the first director of the California Youth Corrections Authority.

The Governor transferred management of State reformatories—Preston, Nelles, and Ventura—to the Youth Corrections Authority. 1,080 youths were in institutions, 1,625 youths were on parole, and staff numbered near 517.

The State Probation Office turned over responsibility for delinquency prevention to the Youth Corrections Authority. The word “corrections” was dropped from title hence, California Youth Authority (CYA).

Fifty boys transferred from county jails to the Calaveras Big Trees Park where they built a 100-bed capacity camp. The Youth Authority acquired property and buildings formerly used by the Knights of Pythias Old Peoples’ Home. Boys from Preston and the Calaveras Camp cleaned and renovated the grounds and buildings, and the Los Guillicos School for Girls was established in Sonoma County.

The CYA entered into a contract with the United States military for the establishment of two camps—one at Benicia Arsenal and the other at the Stockton Ordnance Depot—each with a population of 150 boys.

The first boys arrived at Fricot Ranch School in Calaveras County. By fall of 1945, 100 boys and a full complement of staff were at the school. The 1,090-acre estate was leased with an option to purchase for $60,000 and that option was exercised in 1946.

Many youthful offenders in detention homes, jail, and two army camps were awaiting commitment to the Youth Authority. Army camps were closed after the war and the growing need for facilities became a crisis.

The Division of Parole was created and the parole staff were consolidated.

The need was apparent for an institution for older boys, and the Legislature authorized the California Vocational Institution at Lancaster (an old Army/Air Force Base).

A State subsidy was given to counties for establishment of juvenile homes, ranches, and camps for juvenile court youths. The subsidy was administered by the CYA. Pine Grove Camp was established in Amador County.

Camp Ben Lomond opened in Santa Cruz County.

The first youths arrived at El Paso de Robles School for Boys (located in San Luis Obispo County) on September 30. The school was a former Army/Air Base comprising 200 acres and 40 barrack buildings, which was purchased for $8,000.

Governor Earl Warren called the first Statewide Youth Conference in Sacramento in January. An estimated 2,200 people attended, including 200 high school and college youths.

Heman G. Stark was named Director and served until 1968. His tenure remains the longest of any CYA director.

The CYA was given departmental status.

Northern and Southern Reception Centers opened, in Sacramento and Norwalk, respectively.

Mt. Bullion Camp opened in Mariposa County.

The Youth Training School opened in San Bernardino County.

The CYA was placed under the newly formed Youth and Adult Corrections Agency.

Washington Ridge Camp opened in Nevada County.

The Ventura School for Girls moved from its Ventura location to Camarillo.

The State’s Juvenile Court Law was modified.

A reception center and clinic was established at the Ventura School for Girls, and the girls at the Southern Reception Center and Clinic in Norwalk were transferred to Ventura.

The Northern California Youth Center (NCYC) opened near Stockton (in San Joaquin County).

The O. H. Close School for Boys opened at NCYC.

Allen Breed was named Director.

The Karl Holton School for Boys opened at NCYC.

An administrative reorganization plan was implemented, establishing Northern and Southern Divisions.

Facilities were constructed at the Pine Grove and Ben Lomond Camps.

The CYA, along with the Department of Corrections, was placed within the Human Relations Agency (which became the Health and Welfare Agency).

A change in the law meant fewer female commitments, so the Ventura School for Girls became co-educational.

The DeWitt Nelson School opened at NCYC.

Los Guillicos became co-educational with boys from Fricot Ranch.

Fricot Ranch was closed due to its declining youth population.

Oak Glen Camp opened in San Bernardino County.

El Paso de Robles School closed due to declining commitments.

El Paso de Robles School reopened, as commitments began to rise again.

Pearl West was named Director. She was the first woman to hold the position.

Fenner Canyon Camp opened in Los Angeles County.

The CYA became part of the newly formed Youth and Adult Correctional Agency.

The Legislature removed the state’s young offender paroling authority, the Youth Authority Board, from the CYA and renamed it the Youthful Offender Parole Board (YOPB). The director had also served as chairman of the board. Antonio C. Amador was selected to chair the “new” YOPB.

Antonio C. Amador, former Los Angeles Police Protective League President, was named Director. He was the first Hispanic person to hold the position.

James Rowland, the Chief Probation Officer of Fresno County, was named Director and introduced the concept of involving crime victims in youth correctional programs.

The “Impact of Crime on Victims” curriculum was implemented and introduced in each institution and camp in the CYA. This was a pioneering effort that has since been shared with other states and localities across the country.

The department adopted a policy defining employment readiness as a major goal for youths and began reorganizing its Vocational Educational Program to make training more relevant with available jobs.

Free Venture, a program involving public/private partnerships for youth employment, began. The CYA agreed to provide space to private sector businesses that met certain criteria. In turn, the businesses began to hire and train youths who earn prevailing wages for real jobs. Youths who earn these jobs then become taxpayers. Also, percentages of their earnings are directed towards victim restitution, room and board, a trust fund, and a savings account. Trans World Airlines became the first Free Venture partner, instituting a project at Ventura School.

El Centro Training Center opened as a short-term Institutions and Camps (I&C) Branch facility in Imperial County.

C. A. Terhune, a 30-year veteran of the CYA, was named Director.

El Centro Drug Program for Girls opened.

Ventura School opened a camp program and instituted the department’s first female firefighting crew.

Oak Glen Camp was closed due to budget concerns.

Fenner Canyon Camp was transferred to Department of Corrections.

El Centro closed as an I&C facility and reopened as the Southern California Drug Treatment Center, operated by the Parole Services Branch.

B. T. Collins, a Vietnam War hero who lost an arm and a leg in that conflict, was appointed Director in March. He resigned in August when he was asked to run for the State Assembly by the Governor.

William B. Kolender, a former San Diego Police Chief, was appointed Director.

N. A. Chaderjian School opened. The 600-bed institution at NCYC increased the number of training schools at that site to four. Chaderjian was secretary of the Youth and Adult Correctional Agency at the time of his untimely death in 1988.

Fred C. Nelles School celebrated its Centennial.

The CYA’s first boot camp program (30 beds) opened at Preston School. It was named LEAD (Leadership, Esteem, Ability and Discipline) and served as a model for other juvenile boot camps in the country.

Preston School of Industry celebrated its Centennial.

The second LEAD (Boot Camp) Program (30 beds) opened at Fred C. Nelles School.

The First Superintendent of Education position was created, and the department began a reorganization of the Education Program.

The Youth Authority Training Center opened at the NCYC complex.

Karl Holton School was converted to the Karl Holton Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment Center (DAATC), (now known as Karl Holton Youth Correctional Drug and Alcohol Treatment Facility), devoted entirely to programming youths with substance use and abuse problems. The CYA thus became the first youthful offender agency in the country to devote an entire major institution towards that purpose.

Craig L. Brown, Undersecretary of the Youth and Adult Correctional Agency, was named Director.

Francisco J. Alarcon, Chief Deputy Director, was appointed Director.

CYA Institutions and Camps were changed to include “Youth Correctional.”

Gregorio S. Zermeno, Superintendent at the De Witt Nelson Correctional Facility, was appointed Director in March.

Jerry L. Harper, a former Undersheriff of the Los Angeles Sheriff’s Department, was appointed Director in March.

The Karl Holton Drug and Alcohol Abuse Treatment Center in Stockton closed in September. The facility first opened in 1968.

Walter Allen III was appointed Director by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. Mr. Allen was the Assistant Chief for the California Department of Justice, Bureau of Narcotics Enforcement.

In February, the Northern Youth Correctional Reception Center and Clinic in Sacramento closed. The reception center-clinic first opened in 1956.

Additionally, in February, the Ventura Youth Correctional Facility in Camarillo returned to a females-only facility. Male youths are housed at the S. Carraway Public Service and Fire Center.

In June, the CYA closed the Fred C. Nelles Youth Correctional Facility in Whittier. This was CYA’s oldest facility, spanning more than 100 years. The last youth left the facility on May 27, 2004.

Moreover, in June, the CYA ended its operation of the Mt. Bullion Youth Conservation Camp in Mariposa County.

In November, Farrell v. Allen Consent Decree filed with the court. This action was brought by a taxpayer, Margaret Farrell, against Walter Allen III, the Director of the California Youth Authority at that time.

In a reorganization of the California corrections agencies, the CYA became the Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ) within the Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.

in March, the Education Services Remedial Plan was filed with the court.

In May, the Sexual Behavior Treatment Program Remedial Plan was filed with the court.

In June, Bernard Warner was appointed as Chief Deputy Secretary for the DJJ.

In June, the Health Care Services Remedial Plan was filed with the court.

In July, at the outset of FY 2006/2007, funding to implement remedial plans was provided for the first time.

In July, the Safety and Welfare Remedial Plan was filed with the court.

In August, the Mental Health Remedial Plan was filed with the court.

In June, the Health Care Services Remedial Plan was filed with the court.

Legislation (SB 81 and AB 191) required most youthful offenders to be committed to county facilities, reserving those convicted of the most serious felonies and having the most severe treatment needs for DJJ. Previously adopted financial incentives for counties and these legislative changes reduced DJJ’s population from a peak of approximately 10,000 (a decade earlier) to approximately 1,700.

On July 31, El Paso de Robles and De Witt Nelson Youth Correctional Facilities closed.

In October, David Murphy, a 20 year veteran school administrator, is named DJJ’s Superintendent of Education, fulfilling a significant requirement of the Farrell reform plan for Education.

In February, the Heman G. Stark Youth Correctional Facility in Chino—originally known as the Youth Training School and subsequently named for the agency’s longest serving director—was closed after 50 years as a juvenile facility and began transforming into an adult prison. DJJ continues to operate five facilities and two fire camps.

In March, DJJ adopted a new staffing model that adapted to a smaller population but also provided uniform treatment for all DJJ youth to administer reforms required by the Farrell plans. The consolidation of staff and facilities results in staff reductions of approximately 400 positions and estimated savings of $30-40 million.

In February, DJJ reported to the Alameda Superior Court that it had complied with 82 percent of more than 8,000 policy and program changes required by the Farrell reform plans.

Rachel Rios was named Deputy Secretary of Juvenile Justice (Acting).

In February, counties began to assume parole supervision of juvenile offenders, under the Public Safety and Rehabilitation Act of 2010. The Juvenile Parole Board continued to determine when a youth is sufficiently rehabilitated to warrant release, but county courts and probation officials established and enforced conditions of supervision.

The Preston Youth Correctional Facility in Ione closed in June. Opened as the Preston School of Industry in 1894, it was the state’s second facility built specifically to house juvenile offenders.

The Southern Youth Correctional Reception Center and Clinic in Norwalk (Los Angeles County) closed in December.

Due to a declining number of youth eligible for firefighting duty, DJJ consolidates its juvenile fire crews to Pine Grove, vacating the S. Carraway Public Service and Fire Protection Center in Camarillo (Ventura County).

BAAG Naval Section Intelligence Summary, late February to mid March 1943, ship repair, maintenance and movements

Elizabeth Ride has sent the Naval section of a British Army Aid Group (BAAG) Waichow Intelligence Summary (WIS 27) dated 4th April 1943. This covers shipping movements in and out of Hong Kong during the Japanese occupation in World War Two during late February to mid-March 1943. There are a number of Naval Section Intelligence Summaries covering these months which tend to overlap one another.

These reports also describes time spent by vessels undergoing repairs and maintenance in a number of Hong Kong shipyards.

They also offer a wide range of other information including that concerning the Japanese Army and Air Force and other aspects of life in Hong Kong during the Japanese occupation in which you may be interested. This is not usually included here. To see the full reports please refer to Further Information below.

HF: To aid research I have attempted to summarize and list the most salient points covered in the report under three sections:-

Firstly, Locations mentioned – both shipyards in HK and ports vessels have come from or are going to in South and East Asia.

Secondly, the names of Ships mentioned. This has not always been easy. My inability to read Chinese or Japanese is a clear hindrance. Plus even when in English whether typed or handwritten they are sometimes semi-legible. Any corrections or clarification would be helpful.

Thirdly, under Miscellaneous I have noted any items that I think might be of interest.

Further information regarding subjects mentioned in this report including images of the ships would be very welcome.

Locations: Palau Island, Kowloon Dock, Shanghai, Canton, Wanchai, East Lamma channel, Dam Gon Islands, Hoi Nan [Hainan?] Island, Singapore, Kwong Chow Wan, Naval Dockyard, Taikoo Docks, Baileys Shipyard, former Government Store, Formosa, Bailey Shipyard, Shanghai, Kowloon Godown Wharves, Hainan Island, Kwong Chow Wan, Kowllon Wharf & Godown Company,

Ships mentioned: Hospital ship Manila Maru, Takachihi Maru, Nanshyu, Yamada Maru, Chinese Maritime Cruisers Hai Ping and Hai Hui, unnamed steamship, Tin Sang Maru, Kin Ming, C1055 + C2124 iron trawlers, Hiu Nam Maru (Gyonan?) formerly British ship, Ko Chi Maru, Hiu Hung Maru, large wooden junks,Custom Cruiser Yuan Ti – formerly British, Custom Cruiser Shuk Sing Maru, torpedo boat – The Magpie, had been scuttled and salvaged by the Japs, Chuen Hing Maru – merchantman, gunboat No.6, new gunboat launched, transports No.460 + 92, destroyer, transport – Shewo Maru, Manila Maru – a Red Cross Ship, Hiu Nam Maru, hospital ship, Nin [Hin?] Sang – formerly Jardine ship salvaged and repaired,Red Cross ship Buenos Aires Maru

River Steamer routes:
Canton to Hong Kong
Canton to Macau
Canton to Kongmun

Ships known to be on the above runs: Nam Hui Maru – formerly Fat Shun of the HK, Canton & Macao Steamship Company
Hoi Chu Maru
Wan Yeung Maru
Hoi Kong Maru – these three ships thought to be Japanese not captured vessels

Miscellaneous: naval gasoline, ARP tunnels, diesel engines, gun trials, Hong Kong Land Garrison, 100 carpenters left their jobs at Taikoo Docks and went to Ngau Tau Kok Shipyard to build wooden ships, Transport vessels carrying poultry, beans and sundry foodstuffs, rice, military trucks

Three scuttled ships remain in the harbour, not yet salvaged, Most of Navy [personnel?] seen in HK bear yellow star shaped badges on their right arms.

List of Shipping Movements

List of Lumber Consumption Data at Naval Dockyard and Taikoo Docks

List of Steel Plates Consumption Data

List of Slipway Dimensions + Capacities at Naval Dockyard, Kwong Hip Lung, Kwong Tak Hing, Kwong Cheung Hing shipyards

Manila Maru Courtesy: http://www.combinedfleet.com

4 March 1943:
SE of Palau. At 1120, an unidentified submarine fires two torpedoes at MANILA MARU at 05-26N, 136-17E, but MANILA MARU escapes by changing course.
Source: Manila Maru – Tabular Record of Movement Courtesy: www.combinedfleet.com

  1. For general information about the Elizabeth Ride collection, her father Sir Lindsay Ride, and the British Army Aid group during WW2 a very useful introduction is through http://gwulo.com/node/13968
  2. The BAAG papers are kept at the Hong Kong Heritage Project https://www.hongkongheritage.org/Pages/FindingAids/LibraryCollection/Elizabeth_M_Ride_Collection.aspx

Our Index contains several examples of BAAG Naval Section Intelligence Summaries, other BAAG material plus many articles about Hong Kong during the Second World War.

Social Security

The Revolving Files are our largest collection of core research materials. There are four revolving units, subdivided into carriers. Each carrier contains approximately 10 liner feet of material.

At this point, there is no descriptive information of the content of the individual folders. This is only an inventory of the folders.

Revolving Files Unit L1

Carrier #1- People Files:

The "People Files" is a listing of all individuals on whom we have a folder of material. The contents of these folders is not available and they
can vary in size from hundreds of pages to only one or two. The folders may contain photographs as well as textual material.

Abraham, Arthur
Abruzzo, Ben
Ackerman, Ernest
Adcock, Francis N.
A'hearn, Leonard W.
Ainsworth, Robert
Albrecht, Wayne
Alford, Huston
Alpern, Lawrence
Altman, Gerald
Amborn, Philip
Amin, Nagib
Anderson, John
Anderson, Robert
Andrews, John B.
Apfel, Kenneth S.
Aristides, Harduvel
Armstrong, Barbara
Arnaudo, David
Aronson, E.E.
Aronson, Henry
Arthur, Edward
Ashcraft, Gary D.
Ashe, B.F.
Asquith, Herbert H.
Austin, Mary E.
Avery, Sherwood H.
Bache, Barbara
Bader, Eleanor J.
Baer, Martin E.
Bain, Wendell H.
Baker, Carl L.
Baker, Louis J.
Bakke, E. Wright
Ball, Robert M. (Folder 1)
Ball, Robert M. (Photos)
Ballantyne, Harry L.
Ballew, Carol
Balthazar, Joseph
Bane, Frank
Banning, Paul Darrell
Barnes, Paul
Barnes, Ted
Barnhart (nee Ross), Jo Anne B.
Barnette, R.M.
Barney, Marshall H.
Barr, Jessica
Bartlett, Dwight K. III.
Bartlett, Ewell T.
Bary, Helen Valeska
Batzell, Paul E.
Bauer, Julian
Baum, Walter
Beach, Charles F.
Bearden, Wendell H.
Beasley, Robert W.
Beck, Wilbur
Becker, Irving
Beckett, Katie
Bedingfield, W. David
Bedwell, Beverly A.
Bedwell, Theodore C., Jr.
Belcher, J. Warren
Bell, Louis
Benjamin, Mandel
Benner, Arthur J.
Bennet, Chauncy, Jr.
Bennett, Paul E.
Berger, Victor L.
Bergsten, James L.
Berkowitz, Edward D.
Berman, Harris
Berman, Julius
Berstein, David
Beveridge, Robert E.
Bicknell, Forest B.
Bigge, George E.
Bingham, Robert P.
Bismarck, Otto Von
Blaha, Henery C.
Blakeslee, Ruth O.
Blomgren, Joseph E.
Bluett, John E.
Blumenfeld, Herbert L.
Blumenthal, Melvin
Boam, John T.
Bodden, George D.
Boltinghouse, Llyle L.
Bolton - Smith, Carlile
Bone, Frederick W.
Bonin, Raymond W.
Bonnet, Phillip D.
Bontz, Rita
Borden, Enid
Borgen, Herb
Borgen, I. Herbert
Borges, Charles F.
Bortz, Abe
Bost, Howard L.
Bosti, James T.
Bourne, Elliott
Bowen, Ofis R.
Bowman, John
Boyd, Gerald L.
Bracy, Joseph
Bradley, Eileen
Brandchaft, Harry
Branham, Richard E.
Bredenberg, Karl
Brees, Eugene W.
Brehn, Henry
Brewer, Lyman H.
Brice, Maurice O.
Brickenkamp, Frederick
Bridges, Benjaman
Brittingham, Harold
Broadway, Thomas C.
Brody, Goldie
Brooks, George
Broome, Victor
Brosius, Charles
Brown, Alvin G.
Brown - Hopkins, Audrey
Brown, Irwin S.
Brown, J. Douglas
Brown, James D.
Brown, James M.
Brown, Philip T.
Brown, Richard C.
Brown, Sara
Browne, James G.
Bruce, Thomas M.
Bruner, Carl
Bruns, Donald J.
Bryant, Ronald
Buck, Jr., Frank H.
Buell, Bobbie
Buffington, John
Buhler, Ernest O.
Burgess, Wayne
Burke, Michael
Burns, Desmond
Burns, Eveline M.
Burr, Harold S.
Burton, Ernest R.
Bush, George
Butler, Carol D.
Butler, Trish
Bye, Herman
Byers, Elvin P.
Bynum, Robert
Calhoon, James L.
Califano, Joseph A., Jr.
Callahan, John J.
Callison, James C.
Campbell, John R.
Carlucci, Frank
Cantor, Eddie
Cardozo, Benjamin N.
Cardwell, James B.
Carlson, Lenore R.
Carmony, Joseph
Carpenter, Chester
Carpenter, J. Reed
Carpenter, Martin F.
Carroll, John J.
Carter, Douglas
Carter, Eugene C.
Carter, James E.
Celebreezze, Anthony
Champ, Donald E.
Chase, James
Chassman, Deborah A.
Chater, Shirley S.
Chen, Y.P.
Childs, Andria
Chin, Leslie S.
Chodoff, Peter
Christensen, Horace
Christgau, Victor
Cindrich, Joseph
Ciulla, Andrew
Clague, Ewan
Clarke, Mildred
Clearman, Wilfred J.
Clemmer, Bennie
Clinton, William J.
Coady, Edward R.
Coakley, Joseph H.
Cobb, Winston
Cochrane, Cornelius
Cochrane, L.J.
Cogan, Ben
Cohen, Eloise
Cohen, Joel
Cohen, Louis C.
Cohen, Stephen B.
Cohen, Wilbur J. (Folder 1)
Cohen, Wilbur J. (Folder 2)
Cohen, Wilbur J. (Photos)
Coll, Blanche D.
Colletta, Camillo E.
Collins, Bettye
Collins, Maurice
Columbus, Joseph C.
Colvin, Carolyn
Commissioners & Board Members (Photos)
Commons, Ellen M.
Commons, John R.
Cook, Cecil
Cook, H. Dale
Cooper, Heyman C.
Cooper, William F.
Cooter, John H.
Corbett, Leo
Cornish, Clem
Corre, Joseph
Corson, John J.
Cote, Charles
Cotton, Paul
Couchod, B. Carlton
Coughlin, Charles E. (Father)
Couper, Walter J.
Covey, Lucille V.
Coy, Wayne
Coyne, Brian D.
Cozens, Gayle
Crabbe, Buster
Crank, Sandy
Cummins, William H.
Creech, Herbert C.
Crenson, Charlotte
Cresswell, William
Cronin, Bernard J.
Cronin, Michael A.
Crooks, Hank
Crosby, Reg
Crouch, Sam
Crowell, Benedict
Cruikshank, Nelson H.
Cullen, Francis J.
Cumming, Roger
Cummings, Homer S.
Cummins, Jack
Dahm, Carl H.
Dalbey, Gertrude
Dapper, Nancy J.
Darby, Chester C.
Daum, Harry
Davenport, Clifton E.
David, Alvid M.
Davis, J.
Davis, Rhoda M.G.
Davis, Ronald L.
Davis, Russell
Davis, Sue
Dawson, William F.
Degeorge, Frank
Dehn, Glen
Delehey, William
Dell'acqua, Frank
Delle Bovi, Charles J.
Del Rosso, Raymond
De Lucas, Louis J.
De Maar, Michael H.
Derthick, Martha A.
De Sanctis, Anthony
De Schweinitz, Elizabeth M.
De Schweinitz, Karl
Detweiler, Marie
Deutch, Jacob
Devine, Donald E.
Deviny, John J.
Dewberry, Maurice D.
DeWitt, Larry
Dewson, Mary W.
Diamonnd, Lee
Di Benedetto, Philip J.
Dickel, G. Karl
Dickerson, Horace L.
Dierdorff, Curtis L.
Digiogio, Edmond
Disman, Bea
Dill, William L.
Dimaio, Adam
Dipalo, Ernie
Dipentima, Renato
Disturco, Peter
Doerer, Donald E.
Doggette, Herbert R., Jr.
Dooley, Wally
Donkar, Eli
Donnelly, Glenna
Dorr, L. Wesley
Dopkin, Lee
Dotterer, Harold
Dowd, Kenneth G.
Dowling, Delmar
Drain, James A.
Driver, William J.
Drummond, Alfred
Duey, Glen W.
Duey, Joseph
Dulles, Eleanor Lansing
Dunaway, Emmett
Dunn, Howard
Dunn, Loula F.
Dunn, Robert
Duvall, Robert
Duzor, Deidre
Dwyer, Charles E.
Dye, Larry
Dyer, John R.
Dykes, Lew
Edberg, Howard O.
Eidman, Alberta A.
Eife, Frank W.
Eisinger, Richard A.
Eisenhower, Dwight D.
Eliot, Thomas H.
Ellickson, Katherine P.
Ellison, James
Embry, Leland
Emerson, Thomas I.
Engle, Lavina
Enoff, Louis D.
Epstein, Abraham
Epstein, Lenore
Ercole, John
Erfle, Anne M.
Erisman, Charles M.
Ermatinger, William C.
Evans, Roger F.
Evans - Young, Trevor
Everett, Paul
Ewing, Oscar R.
Factor, Harris
Failla, George (Folder 1)
Failla, George (Folder 2)
Falk, Isidore S.
Farley, Alice
Faulhaber, Edwin
Fay, Donald E.
Fay, Eugene C.
Fay, Joseph L.
Feder, Goldie
Fenn, Kathryn D.
Fenwick, Robert
Ferguson, Carroll D.
Fey, Herman
Fichtner, Jason
Finch, Robert H.
Fine, Harold D.
Finegar, Wayne W.
Firth, Velma
Fisher, Gilbert C.
Fisher, Paul
Fishman, Harold
Fitch, William
Fitzpatrick, Frank
Flemming, Arthur S.
Flynn, Robert
Focarelli, Dominick
Foertschbeck, Margaret
Folsom, Marion B.
Fontenot, Kenneth
Forand, Aime J.
Forbus, James E.
Ford, Gerald
Foster, Richard S.
Fraker, Robert
Francfort, Alfred
Frank, Charlotte
Franklin, Charles L.
Frazier, Leon P.
Freedman, Al
Freedman, Milton
Friedel, Samuel N.
Friedman, Everett M.
Friedman, George
Friend, Hilton W.
Freund, Jules
Friedenberg, Irwin
Frizzera, John
Frizzell, R. Elmer
Frost, Edward J.
Fuller, Ida M.
Fuller, Ida M. (Photos)
Fuller, Ida M.
Fullerton, William D.
Fulmer, George
Fussell, Richard
Futterman, Jack
Futterman, Jack (Photos)
Gambino, Phillip
Gahan, Arleen H.
Gallaghe, George J.
Galley, Richard W.
Galvin, William
Gannon, J. Dean
Ganzhorn, Michael W.
Gardner, Glenn
Gardner, John W.
Garrison, Charlie
Garro, Diane Baker
Garvin, Lois H.
Gasser, Paul R.
Gaughan, Kathleen
Gaus, Clifton R.
Geier, Rita
Gellhorn, Walter
George, John A.
Gerig, Daniel
Gift, Howard
Gilfillan, John I.
Gillespie, Jack
Gilmore, Peter H.
Ginski, Susan
Girdner, Ted
Gluck, George
Gnagey, Gloe N.
Goetz, Byron E.
Goins, Martin A.
Goldberg, Harold
Goldstein, Anita T.
Goldstein, Jack
Goldstein, Norman M.
Goldwater, Barry (Senator)
Gonya, Donald
Gonzales, Andy
Gonzalez, Rick
Good, Gary
Gooden, Leza
Goodman, Leslie
Goodspeed, John
Goodwin, Kathryn D.
Gore, Albert
Gorman, William
Gould, Jane G.
Graham, Frank P.
Graham, Mack L.
Graham, Thurston M.
Gralton, Philip J.
Gray, Frederick L.
Gray, Thomas V.
Gray, William
Green, Robert C.
Greenberg, Arthur
Grenville, Thomas N.E.
Gribbin, Joseph A.
Grochowski, Michael
Grogan, John J.
Gross, Clifford R.
Gross, John E.
Gruber, Herbert
Gunn, Sherman
Guolo, Ely C. (Al)
Haas, James R.
Haber, Lawrence
Habersham, Myrtle S.
Haddow, C. McClain
Hagan, Doyle D.
Hagen, Harry
Haggerty, James V.
Hall, Alice
Hall, Carl C.
Hall, Norman P.
Hallock, Harris
Halsey, Olga S.
Halter, William A.
Hambor, John
Hamer, Sara
Hamilton, Walton H.
Hammond, Gus (Shoe Shine)
Hampton, John L.
Hanna, William E.
Hannings, Robert B.
Hansen, Alvin H.
Harding, Farrell
Harding, Gene
Hardy, Dorcas R.
Hardy, Idella
Harper, Heber R.
Harrington, Frank B.
Harrington, Morton O.
Harris, Joseph P.
Harris, Patricia R.
Harris, Robert C.
Harrison, George M.
Harrison, Gladys A.
Harrison, Pat
Hart, Thomas P.
Haskins, Barbara S.
Hawkes, Phillip
Hawkins, Donald A.
Hayes, James D.
Hayes, Theodore
Hayes, Verna
Hays, Louis B.
Hearn, Saul D.
Heaton, Donald H.
Hecker, Edwin
Heckler, Margaret M.
Hedrick, Travis
Heller, Robert N.
Helms, Myrtle A.
Henderson, John
Hendricks, Lawrence E.
Henigson, Steven
Henseler, Bart
Hensler, Clifton P.
Herrera, Peter V., Jr.
Hess, Arthur E.
Hess, Arthur E. (Photos)
Hess, Eugene C.
Hewitt, Paul
Hildenberg, Evelyn B.
Hill, Donald B.
Hinckley, Jean Hall
Hingeley, Joseph B., Jr.
Hinkle, William H.
Hinkson, Edward D.
Hinson, Tom
Hobby, Oveta Culp
Hodben, Sid
Hodges, Leroy
Hoey, Jane
Hohaus, Reinard A.
Hohman, Helen F.
Holladay, James E.
Holland, Harry
Hollister, Clayton J.
Holmes, Vivian
Holmes, William J., Jr.
Hopkins, Harry L.
Horlick, Max
Hosford, Lee
Hoyas, John
Hsiao, William C.
Hughes, Aaron J.
Hughes, Thomas Sr.
Hulcher, Bosworth
Humphrey, Hubert H.
Hunt, Faith
Hunter, Fay
Hurley, John
Hurt, Burnell
Hurwitz, David S.
Huse, James G., Jr.
Huse, Robert E.
Hutchinson, Gerald E.
Hutchinson, Mary H.
Hytner, Erv

People Files: Carrier #2-
Ichniowski, Francis C.J.
Immerwahr, George
Irons, Warren B.
Irwin, W.A.
Ives, Ralph F.
Jabine, Thomas B.
Jackson, Eddie
Jackson, Yvette
Jadlos, William
Jalbert, Russell
James, Reginald
Jefferies, Arthur L.
Jeffers, James
Jenkins, Dave
Jenkins, George L.
Jensen, Theodore
Jeter, Helen R.
Johnakin, Richard
Johnson, Alfred Clarke
Johnson, Burke, Jr.
Johnson, Hugh
Johnson, Lyndon B.
Johnson, Martin
Johnson, Milton R.
Johnson, Robert
Johnson, Robert H.
Joleson, David
Jones, Charles D.
Jones, Dorothy A.
Jones, Larry
Jones, Wilson C.
Jordan, Raymond
Juni, Sarah M.
Kahn, David
Kahn, Alercia
Kapriva, Frank
Kearney, Frank
Keehner, Joseph
Keller, Hunter L.
Keller, Marie
Kellogg, Paul
Kelly, Joseph J.
Kendall, Wallace
Kennan, E.J.
Kennedy, John F.
Kennedy, Stephen
Kerns, Norman
Kershner, Isaac S.
Kessler, Joseph
Kieffer, Jarold A.
Kimball, Arthur A.
King, Gwendolyn S.
Kinzer, Paul G.
Kirchner, Richard F.
Kirschbaum, Elliot A.
Kissko, James A.
Klenklen, Robert L.
Kobayashi, Lynette H.
Koch, Marjorie
Kochman, Leon A.
Koenig, Samuel
Kohler, Al
Kolb, Don
Kolodkin, Marvin
Koontz, Joe L.
Kooreman, Bill
Kopelman, David L.
Koplow, David
Kovacs, Joseph S., Jr.
Krabbe, Carla
Kramer, Ed
Krebs, Robert E.
Kreek, Albert
Kreps, Sol
Kretz, George R.
Krute, Aaron
Kuhle, Albert
Kumar, Dinesh
Kunning, Chester
Kurtz, Milton W.
Ladouceur, Theodore A.
Lambert, Dewey
Lampron, Harold
Lancaster, David
Landes, Morton S.
Landon, Alfred M.
Lange, Louis
Langford, Elizabeth
Lannon, Edwin R.
Lars, Myra M.
Larsen, Lawrence E.
Larson, Kathleen B.
Larson, Neota
Latimer, Murray (Folder 1)
Latimer, Murray (Folder 2)
Lattner, Sam
Lavere, William
Lazarus, Louis
Leeper, Lucius W.
Leibovitz, Sid
Lenane, Antonia L.
Lenroot, Katharine
Leonard, Edwin
Lepore, Rose M.
Lessing, Ronald
Leton, Mercia
Leuenberger, C.C.
Leuchtenburg, William E.
Levine, Manny
Levinson, Bernard
Lewis, David J.
Lewis, David
Lichtenstein, Charles
Lieberman, Huldah
Lilly, Robert A.
Lipinski, Boris
Listerman, Ellisworth
Littley, John J.
Litwin, Theodore S.
Liu, Jeffrey
Loble, Lester H.
Long, Huey
Lott, Michael E.
Love, Nat
Loving, Joy
Lowe, George
Lowrey, Perrin
Lowrie, Kathleen J.
Lunsford, Foy C.
Lunz, Charles M.
Lupton, Elmer C.
Lynn, Jesse
McAllister, Lambert
McCamant, Jay
McCarthy, Richard
McCarthy, T.H.
McClernan, Robert F.
McConnachie, John A.
McCormack, E.J.
McCoy, Pete
McDonald, A.K.
McDonald, Ed
McDonald, Francis J.
McDonald, John J.
McDonald, Roger
McDonald, Thomas A., Jr.
McDougal, Francis
McElvain, Joseph E.
McFadden, Ed
McGehee, Hugh
McGruder, Orlando
McGuinn, James J.
McGuire, Ellen
McHale, Jack
McKenna, Hugh F.
McKenzie, John A.
McKinnon, Leona V.
McMahon, Linda
McNutt, Paul V.
McSteen, Martha A.
McTernan, Hugh
Macioch, David
Mack, Elizabeth
Mack, Jacob J.
Macks, Solomon
Maddox, Warren
Maher, Joseph T.
Mahoney, William A.
Makoff, Brian
Maloney, Charles
Manzano, Jamie L.
Mandel, Benjamin J.
Mandell, Marshall S.
Manson, Grace
Marchetti, March A.P.
Marder, Robert D.
Marley, James B.
Marquardt, Roy K.
Marquis, Jim
Marshall, Frederick
Mason, Robert D.
Massanari, Larry G.
Martin, James
Matarazzo, James V.
Matejik, Frank
Mather, John
Mathews, F. David
May, Geoffrey
Mayer, John
Mayne, Robert M.
Maze, John M.
Melville, Edward
Merriam, Ida C.
Merrill, George
Mesterharm, D. Dean
Meyers, Gus
Meyers, Joseph H.
Michener, John
Milburn, H. Norman Jr.
Miles, Vincent M.
Miller, Tom
Miller, Watson B.
Mings, Donald
Minnich, Bob
Mitchell, Byron
Mitchell, Helen
Mitchell, Kimberlee
Mitchell, William L.
Mode, Walter
Moleski, Marlene M.
Moley, Raymond
Monk, Carl
Monkevich, Edward A.
Montgomery, Newton
Moog, Bill
Moore, E. Thomas, Jr.
Moore, Edward F.
Moore, John C.
Morgenthau, Henry, Jr.
Moriarty, George W.
Morin, Henry W.
Morrison, Malcolm H.
Morrissey, Ruth A.
Mortenson, Jim
Mueller, Edward A.
Mueller, Richard
Muffolett, Joseph
Mulholland, Elizabeth
Mullane, Jack
Mullen, Robert C.
Mulliner, Maurine
Munnell, Alicia H.
Murray, James W.
Murray, Merrill G.
Myers, Robert J. (Folder 1)
Myers, Robert J. (Folder 2)
Myers, Robert J. (Folder 3)
Myers, Bob (Folder 4)
Myers, Robert J. (Photos)
Myers, Samuel E.
Naftilan, Seymour
Naver, Michael
Nease, James H.
Needham, Edward V.
Neely, John
Neisen, S. Allen
Nelson, Rudolph L.
Neubauer, Robert
Neustadt, Richard
Newman, Eva
Nibali, Kenneth
Nicholls, Herbert
Nichols, Fred Z.
Nicol, Edward V.
Nielsen, Clyde
Nixon, Richard M.
Noland, Doris
Norvell, Lynn E.
O'Beirne, James J.
O'Beirne, Margaret S.
O'Brien, Angela
O'Brien, Edward J.
O'Brien, Phil
O'Connell, Harold
O'Connell, Marilyn
O'Connor, John T.
O'Dell, Arthur E., Jr.
O'Dowd, James D.
Ogden, Levi
O'Hare, Mary
O’Hare, Thomas J.
Ohki, Evelyn S.
Olds, Lewis W.
Ohlbaum, Stanley N.
O'Leary, Charles
O'Mara, James B.
Orchard, Claude R.
Orshansky, Mollie
Oritz, Lydia
Ossen, Jay J.
Osward, Lee Harvey
O'Toole, Richard
Ourbacher, S.N.
Overs, Harty
Owens, Patricia
Oxley, Lawrence
Ozarowski, Anthony J.
Packer, Harold
Paine, Thomas
Pappas, Jack J.
Parent, Alcide J.
Paris, Ian
Parker, Glowacki R.
Parker, George H.
Parrott, Thomas C.
Passig, Letitia D.
Pasternak, Phillip
Paton, Roger G.
Patt, Henry
Paul, William R.
Pearson, John
Peddicord, Robert C.
Pederson, Raymond
Penfield, Scott R.
Percy, John R.
Perger, Edward
Perkins, Frances
Perlman, Gerald
Perlman, Jacob
Perrin, "Pete" Lowrey
Peters, John
Philipowitz, Michael G.
Phillips, Webster
Pierce, Ruth A.
Pierce, Walter N.
Pigman, Nathaniel M., Jr.
Pine, Robert A.
Platt, Herman
Pleines, Walter W.
Podhajsky, Edward C.
Podoff, David
Poen, Monte M.
Poetker, David
Pogge, Oscar C.
Ponsi, Louis
Ponzi, Charles
Popick, Bernard
Porter, G. Hinckley
Postow, Benjamin
Potter, Charles F.
Powell, Barry L.
Powell, Kessler
Powell, Oscar M.
Preissner, James
Prestianni, Sam R.
Pribam, Karl
Probst, Harry E.
Projector, Dorothy
Prokop, Jan
Quinn, Elizabeth
Rackley, Lloyd E.
Rainey, Glenn W.
Ranahan, M. Margaret
Rawson, George E.
Reagan, Ronald W.
Read, Bill
Reavis, Ben
Rector, Joseph
Rector, Stanley
Reed, John
Register, Wayman E.
Rehbehn, John E.
Reid, Robert M.
Reillo, Ron
Resnick, Louis
Reticker, Ruth
Rhoades, Peggy
Rhodes, Linda Colvin
Ribicoff, Abraham
Rice, Charles E.
Rice, Dorothy P.
Rich, Julius
Rich, Stuart
Richardson, Elliot L.
Richardson, John F.
Richeson, Jerry
Richter, Otto C.
Riegler, Eugene J.
Riley, John
Rini, Vince
Rivers, William
Roberson, Tim
Robertson, A. Haeworth
Robinson, Robert
Robinson, Richard
Robinson, Thomas
Roche, Josephine
Rockfeller, Nelson A.
Roemich, William (Dr.)
Rogers, Fred
Rogers, Fred (Photos)
Rohrback, Dan
Roland, Howard
Roney, Jay L.
Roosevelt, Eleanor
Roosevelt, Franklin D.
Roosevelt, Franklin D. (Photos)
Roosevelt, Theodore
Roseman, Alvin J.
Rosenberg, Anna M.
Rosenthal, A.
Rosenthal, Paul (Judge)
Ross, Jane
Ross, Mary E.
Ross, Stanford G.
Rosse, Edward
Rothenberg, Robert
Rouse, Bertram
Rubin, Sheldon
Rubinow, Isaac M.
Rubinstein, Walter
Rucker, James
Rudolph, Walter
Ruesch, Sherman
Rukamp, Dan
Rumsey, Leland C.
Rust, David A.
Ryan, Charles
Rydstrom, Marsha
Sabatini, Edmond
Sabatini, Nelson
Sackel, Morris B.
Sadler, Rowena
Saggett, Jan
St. John, John B.
Salinas, Guadalupe
Salvagno, Ralph G.
Sambuco, Edmund
Sanders, Barkev
Sanders, Elizabeth G.
Salterback, John
Saunders, William
Sayers, Ronald
Scarangella, Jack
Schaeffer, Steven
Schanzer, Benjamin
Scheuren, Frederick
Schienteck, Matt
Schmulowitz, Jacob
Schorr, Alvin
Schnackenberg, Barbara
Schottland, Charles I.
Schreibeis, Charles J.
Schuck, Richard
Schuck, Stuart
Schuefer, Walter
Schuette, Paul
Schultz, Daniel L.
Schumer, Henry
Schutzman, Fred
Schwartz, John
Schweiker, Richard S.
Scully, John
Seager, Henry R.
Seatter, Donald E.
See, Jim
Seideman, Henry P.
Seitz, Clarence
Sewall, Joe
Shaffer, Robert C.
Shaffer, WM Donald
Shalala, Donna
Shandelson, Harry R.
Shappee, Margaret
Shaw, John A.
Shaw, W.F.
Sheehan, Grant R.
Sheel, Floyd H.
Sheild, Lewis
Sheinbach, Jerry Shepherd, Dick
Sherman, Gordon M.
Shofer, Pat
Sholl, Ester
Shortley, Michael J.
Shreve, Charles
Siegel, Harold
Sikora, Don
Sikora, Fran
Silver, Hinda
Simermeyer, Arthur
Simmons, Carolyn
Simmons, Edwin C.
Simmons, Paul B.
Singleton, Elizabeth
Sinofsky, Howard
Skinner, Eugene
Skoler, Daniel
Skolnik, Alfred M.
Sledge, Barbara S.
Slichter, Sumner H.
Small, David T.
Smith, Charles
Smith, David B.
Smith, Frank
Smith, George
Smith, George P., Jr.
Smith, Harley.
Smith, Jim
Smith, Robert M.
Smith, Terrence
Smith, Sam
Smoot, Milton
Snee, John A.
Snurr, Grayson
Snyder, Don
Snyder, Herbert, Jr.
Solomon, Gerald
Sopper, Dale W.
Sorrells, William C.
Sotsky, William C.
Spates, William R.
Spencer, Peter
Spitler, Carl E.
Sprol, Samuel J.
Spry, Richard G.
Stahl, Mary G.
Staples, Thomas
Statham, Walter
Staten, Francis A.
Stead, William H.
Steiger, Sidney M.
Steinberg, Joseph
Steiner, Paul C.
Steinhorn, Lillie
Stermole, Leo A.
Stern, Jean
Stern, Max
Steward, Joan
Stickell, Edward E.
Stillwell, Dick
Stocking, Collis
Stokes, Goodrich
Stolar, Myer H., M.D.
Stone, Donald C.
Stoops, Lowell
Strand, Ivar E., Sr.
Stump, Jr., John S.
Stunkel, Eva R.
Sullivan, Louis W., M.D.
Sung, Tina
Surgies, Armin
Sutcliffe, Donald C.
Svahn, John A.
Swain, Allen
Sweeney, John David
Sweet, Lennig
Swifty, Roy L.
Switzer, Mary E.
Sykes, Zenas Prof.
Taffet, Martin
Tall, Broughton
Tallman, Ernest W.
Tapping, Amy Pryor
Tate, Jack
Taylor, William B.
Taylor, William C.
Teeters, Robert
Thomas, Clyde
Thomas, Stewart
Thompson, Lawrence H.
Thompson, William E.
Teitler, Abraham J.
Tierney, Thomas
Tighe, Joe
Tindale, Thomas Keith
Titmuss, Richard Dr.
Tobin, Reubin
Todd, Franklin
Toombs, Fred
Toomey, Richard
Torrado, Miguel
Touchet, Roy L.
Towner, Dorothy
Townsend, Francis
Townsend, Francis -FBI Files 1
Townsend, Francis -FBI Files 2
Trachtenberg, Robert L.
Tracy, Paul J.
Trafton, George H.
Trafton, Marie C.
Trager, Irving
Trager, Irving (Photos)
Tramburg, John William
Trapnell, Gordon
Trattner, Leo
Triplett, Charles
Trollinger, John
Tronolone, Theodore N.
Trout, John H.
Trout, Peggy
Trowbridge, Charles L.
Troy, James
Truax, Ann
Truman, Harry S.
Tucker, C. Wayne
Tucker, Leonard L.
Tully, James F.
Turkel, Harold
Tyssowski, Mildred
Van De Water, Paul
Van Lare, Barry
Vaz, Manuel
Vau Engel, Bert
Viner, Jacob
Voige, Harry T.
Von Rosenberg, Charles
Wade, Harry
Waganet, R. Gordon
Wagenblast, John F.
Wagner, Robert F.
Wagy, Judd
Wainwright, Joan
Wajda, Edward J.
Walden, David W.
Walker, Carole
Wall, Noel D.
Wallace, Henry A.
Wallach, Lewis
Walsh, Kenneth
Walters, Leon K.
Waltz, Charles W.
Wang, Derek
Wantland, Stanley H.
Wanzer, Harold
Warden, Janice
Warden, Imogene
Wasilko, Raymond
Wasserman, Max J.
Watman, Edward N.
Watson, Richard Way, Elwood J.
Webb, Paul
Webber, Scott
Webbink, Gladys F.
Weber, Lester O.
Weinbaum, Burton D.
Weinberger, Caspar W.
Weinrich, Paulette
Weiss, John
Wells, Al
Wence, George W.
Wendt, Sharon
West, Harold
West, Howard
Wheeler, Peter
Whisenand, Robert A.
Whitcher, Hilda
White, Bernice
White, Carl C.
White, Frank D.
White, Herbert
White, Joseph
White, Ruth
White, Wardell
Whitney, E.S.
Whittier, Sumner G.
Wickenden, Elizabeth
Wicklein, John R.
Wilbert, Leonard
Wilbourne, Frank
Wilcox, Alanson
Wilcox, Fred M.
Wilhelm, Don
Williams, Edward B.
Williams, Jacob A., Jr.
Williams, Grant
Williams, LaVerna
Williams, Roy F., Jr.
Williamson, Al
Williamson, Alfred
Williamson, James A.
Williamson, Lamont W.
Williamson, William R.
Wilson, Benjamin J.
Wilson, William B.
Winant, John G.
Wing, Charles W.
Winston, Ellen (Dr.)
Wirth, Fred
Wise, Marshall
Witherite, Harold C.
Witte, Ernest F.
Wittenmyer, Howard I.
Wolkstein, Irwin
Wolfe, Leigh S.
Wood, William E.
Woodrow, Bill
Woodrun, Rose
Woods, Mary E.
Woodward, Ellen
Wooton, William
Work, Fred
Wortman, Don I.
Wunsch, Melvin H.
Wyatt, Birchard E.
Wyman, George K.
Wynkoop, Roy L.
Wysoff, Milt
Yamamura, George S.
Ycas, Martynas
Young, Andrew
Young, Edgar B.
Young, Fred
Young, Lloyd
Zappacosta, Ronald
Zawatcky, Louis
Zuckerman, Michael H.

Carrier #3- Robert J. Myers Published Works

Organization Files - Carrier #4

Organization - 1935/1936
Organization - 1936
Organization - 1937
Organization - 1938
Organization - 1939
Organization - 1940
Organization - 1941
Organization - 1942
Organization - 1943
Organization - 1944
Organization - 1945
Organization - 1946
Organization - 1947
Organization - 1948
Organization - 1949
Organization - 1950
Organization - 1951
Organization - 1952
Organization - 1953
Organization - 1954
Organization - 1955
Organization - 1956
Organization - 1957
Organization - 1958
Organization - SSA -1959
Organization - 1960
Organization - 1961
Organization - 1962
Organization - 1963
Organization - Department & SSA - 1963
Organization - 1964
Organization - 1965
Organization - 1966
Organization - 1967
Organization - 1968
Organization - 1969
Manpower Utilization Review - 1969
Organization - 1970
Organization - 1971
Organization - 1972
Organization - 1973
Organization of SSI - Study on ADM 1974
Organization - 1974
Organization - 1975 (McKenna's
Background Material)
Organization - 1975
Organization - 1976
Organization - 1977
Organization - 1978
Organization - 1979
Organization - 1980
Organization - 1981
Organization - 1982
Organization - 1983
Organization - 1984
Organization - 1985
Organization - 1986
Organization - 1987
Organization - 1988
Organization - 1989
Organization - 1990
Organization - 1991
Organization - 1992
Organization - 1993
Organization - 1994
Organization - 1995
Organization - 1996
Organization - 1997
Organization - 1998
Organization - 1999
Organization - 2000
Organization &ndash 2001
Organization &ndash 2002
Organization &ndash 2003
Organization &ndash 2004
Organization &ndash 2005
Organization &ndash 2006
Organization - Regional
Organization - Policy Review Committee
Organization - Centralization & Decentralization - Early Considerations (1936 - 1939)
Organization - HDQTRS/Field Relationships
Organization and Key Officials Handbook - 1975
Organization Department
Bureau of Old Age & Survivors Insurance
Organization Department
Organization - History
Organization & Location History

Subject Files - Carrier #5

A - 76
Accountability Report Actuaries
Acus Report
Administration of SSA
Administrative Directive System (SSA)
Administrative Expenses Oasi 1940 - 1979, 01 1957 - 1979
Administrative Law Judiciary (Background)
Administrative Law Judges - 50 yrs.
Advisory Board (Social Security)
Advisory Board (Social Security) Reports: 1997-2001
ALJ Independence
ALJ Travel
Adjudicative Guides Legislative & ADM Development
ADP Planing
ADP Protests
Adult Assistance Planning
Advertising Council
Advisory Councils
Advisory Councils Background
Advisory Council - 1934
Advisory Council - 1937
Advisory Council - 1938
Advisory Council - 1939
Advisory Council - 1953
Advisory Council - 1957
Advisory Council - Health Insurance
Advisory Councils - 1938 - 1975
Advisory Council - 1947
Advisory Council - 1963
Advisory Council - 1969
Advisory Council - 1974
Advisory Council - 1974-75 (Folder 2)
Advisory Council - 1978
Advisory Council - 1982 - 1989
Advisory Council - Disability - 1986
Advisory Council - 1989 -1990
Advisory Council - 1991
Advisory Council - 1994 - 1995
Advisory Council - 1994 - 1996
Affirmative Action
Agency Strategic Plan (ASP)
Aid To Families With Dependent Children
Alien Non-Payment (Nestor Case)
Alternate Work Schedule
ALJ Bias Issues
ALJ Conduct
ALJ Handbook
ALJ Hearings
ALJ/Appeals - Studies
Alternative Pension Schemes
Alumni Association
Amendments - 1939
Amendments Signing
Amendments - 1946 - 1948
Amendments - 1950
Amendments - 1954
Amendments - 1956
Amendments - 1958
Amendments - 1960
Amendments - 1961
Amendments - 1965
Amendments - 1967
Amendments - 1969
Amendments - 1972
Amendments - 1973
Amendments - 1977
Amendments - 1980
Amendments - 1982
Amendments - 1983
Amendments - 1984
Amendments - 1985
Americans Discuss Social Security
Americans With Disabilities Act
Amish - Old Order
Analysis Division - Boasi
Anniversary - 10 th
Anniversary - 15th
Anniversary - 20th
25th Anniversary of the Signing of the Social Security Act
Anniversary - 25th (Folder 2)
25th Anniversary of Bldg.
30th Anniversary
33rd Anniversary
40th Anniversary
45th Anniversary
50th Anniversary
Anniversary - 50th - Exhibit
Anniversary - 50th (Folder 2)
Anniversary - 50th - GMU Seminar
60th Anniversary
65th Anniversary-Anniversary Garden
65th Anniversary--General
65th Anniversary-Hyde Park

Subject Files: Carrier #6-
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Annual Report (Historical)
Annual Financial Statement
Annual Report - DHEW (Its Function and Ideas for Improvement)
Annual Report to Congress
Annual Stmt. Of Earnings
Annual Wage Reporting
Annual Wage Reporting
Appeals Council
Appeals Process
Appeals Process
Applications - Filing Date
Appropriations and Personnel Appointments 1938-1939
Appropriations - 1948
Archival Records - Congress
Archival Records - SSA
Area Offices
Assistance & Service to Enemy Aliens
Atlanta Region
Attorney Fees
Attorney General, Origin & Development of the Office
Audio Cassettes
Auditt - General
Automated Personal Data Systems - Secy's Advisory Committee
Awards Ceremony
Baby Boomers
Backup & Recovery PI
Ball, Robert H. (Lecture Series)
Baltimore City Hospitals - History
Baseline 1970
Basic Principles (1941 - 1944)/Basic Questions (1943 - 1945)
Basic Program Philosophy - Collection of Materials 1938-1982
Batch Systems
Bellmon Amendment
Belmont Conference
Beneficiary - 1st Jobless Benefit Check
Beneficiary - Oldest
Beneficiary Rolls - Integrity of
Beneficiary Stats
Benefits - Administrative Finality
Benefits - Application Requirements
Benefit Computation - Decoupling
Benefit Computation Factors
Beneficiaries - Outside the USA
Beneficiary - Dependency
Beneficiary - 1st To Get Lump Sum Payment (In Cents)
Beneficiary - 1st Monthly Check
Beneficiary -1,000,000th-Mary Thompson--1944
Beneficiary - First Minister to Get Check
Beneficiary - 1,000,00th DIB
Beneficiary - 1st Disability Check
Beneficiary - 3,000,000th Widow & Children
Beneficiary - 5,000,000th
Beneficiary - 8,000,000th
Beneficiary - 10,000,000th
Beneficiary - 15,000,000th
Beneficiary - 20,000,000th
Beneficiary - 24,000,000th
Beneficiary - 25,000,000th
Beneficiaries - Charter
Benefit Computations - The Notch
Benefit Computations
Benefit Payments - Accuracy
Benefits & Contribution Statement
Benefit Lump Sum Death Payment
Benefits - Critical Payment System
Benefits - Deduction Months
Benefits - Month of Attainment
Benefits - Payments Abroad
Benefits - Presumptive Quarters of Coverage
Benefits - Prisoners
Benefits - Recomputations
Benefits - Wife
Benefits - Work Deductions
Benefits - Proof of Age for Holocaust Victims
Benefits - Proposed Old Age Benefit Plans 1934 - 1935
Benefits - Taxable for IRS Purposes
Bicentennial (U.S. Constitution)
Bicentennial - Congress
Bigelow Plan
Black History in SSA
Black Lung
Blind SSA Employees (Visually Handicapped)
Bonds - Trust Fund
Book of Checks - Futterman Report & Materials - Dec.1963
Brooks Report
Buildings - Altmeyer Dedication
Buildings - Baltimore
Buildings - Butler
Buildings - Candler
Buildings - Candler Historical Marker
Buildings - General
Buildings - Hew North (Wash.,DC.)
Buildings - Justification for a New Building
Buildings - Woodlawn 25th Anniversary
Buildings - Wilbur J. Cohen
Buildings - HCFA - 1978
Buildings - National Computer Center
Buildings - Civic Howard
Buildings - Dickinson
Buildings - East
Buildings - Equitable
Buildings - Falconer
Buildings - Fallsway (Hillen)
Buildings - Computer Center & Metro West
Buildings - Metro West
Paca - Pratt Bldg.
Buildings - Government (Bldgs. In Washington)
Washington Non-SSA
Buildings - SSA - Washington
RM -2-2-8 Photographs - Woodlawn Models
RM-2-8 Woodlawn Bldg. - Newspaper Articles Gen.
Buildings - Woodlawn Complex (Folder 1)
Buildings - Woodlawn Complex (Folder 2)
Buildings - ODIO
Buildings - Woodlawn Drive
Buildings - National Space Inventory
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    "Babylonian observation of a lunar eclipse in the first year of Nabonassar. This is the earliest eclipse record from Babylon, and it may well be due to this that Ptolemy uses the beginning of Nabonassar's reign as the epoch for his calculations."
    - Dr. John Steele
    "And when all were in readiness, and none of the enemy had observed them, not expecting such a thing, the moon was eclipsed in the night, to the great fright of Nicias and others, who, for want of experience, or out of superstition, felt alarm at such appearances. That the sun might be darkened about the close of the month, this even ordinary people now understood pretty well to be the effect of the moon but the moon itself to be darkened, how that could come about, and how, on the sudden, a broad full moon should lose her light, and show such various colours, was not easy to be comprehended they concluded it to be ominous, and a divine intimation of some heavy calamities. For he who the first, and the most plainly of any, and with the greatest assurance committed to writing how the moon is enlightened and overshadowed, was Anaxagoras and he was as yet but recent, nor was his argument much known, but was rather kept secret, passing only amongst a few, under some kind of caution and confidence."
    - Nicias by Plutarch
    "In the ensuing year--the year in which there was an eclipse of the moon one evening, and the old temple of Athena at Athens was burned, Pityas being now ephor at Sparta and Callias archon at Athens--the Lacedaemonians sent Callicratidas to take command of the fleet, since Lysander's term of office had ended (and with it the twenty-fourth year of the war)."
    - Hellenica by Xenophon
    "At the time he died the moon is said to have been eclipsed, and one might well say that the brightest luminary in heaven next to the sun thereby gave token of her sympathy. According to Apollodorus in his chronology he departed his life in the fourth year of the 162-nd Olympiad at the age of eighty-five years."
    - Carneades by Diogenes Laertius IV

    "For the troops in Pannonia had mutinied as soon as they learned of the death of Augustus, and coming together into one camp and strengthening it, they committed many rebellious acts. . But when the moon suffered eclipse, they took the omen to heart and their spirit abated, so that they did no further harm to this detachment and dispatched envoys again to Tiberius."
    - Roman History by Cassius Dio

    "The worthy Abp. Bradwardine, who flourished in the reign of the Norman Edwards, and died A.D. 1349, tells a story of a witch who was attempting to impose on the simple people of the time. It was a fine summer's night, and the Moon was suddenly eclipsed. 'Make me good amends,' said she, 'for old wrongs, or I will bid the Sun also to withdraw his light from you.' Bradwardine, who had studied with Arabian astronomers, was more than a match for this simple trick, without calling in the aid of the Saxon law. 'Tell me', he said, 'at what time you will do this, and we will believe you or if you will not tell me I will tell you when the Sun or the Moon will next be darkened, in what part of their orb the darkness will begin, how far it will spread, and how long it will continue'."
    - Archdeacon Churton
    "On Wednesday the 28th of Shawwal, the Sun was eclipsed by about two-thirds in the sign of Cancer more than one hour after the afternoon prayer. The eclipse cleared at sunset. During the eclipse there was darkness and some stars appeared. . . . On Friday night the 14th of Dhu I-Qu'da, most of the Moon was eclipsed. It rose eclipsed from the eastern horizon. The eclipse cleared in the time of the nightfall prayer. This is a rarity - the occurrence of a lunar eclipse 15 days after a solar eclipse."
    - al-Maqrizi
    "Lunar eclipse observed by Georg Peurbach and Regiomontanus in Melk. The considerable error between the observed time and that predicted by the Alphonsine tables may be one reason why Regiomontanus worked on a new set of tables."
    - Dr. John Steele
    "The Indians observed this [the eclipse] and were so astonished and frightened that with great cries and lamentations they came running from all directions to the ships, carrying provisions and begging (. ) and promising they would diligently supply all their needs in the future."
    - Ferdinand Columbus
    "Lunar eclipse predicted and then observed by a young Tycho Brahe in Knudstrup. He says that 'I cannot but be very surprised that even at this youthful age of 26 years, I was able to get such accurate results' from his prediction."
    - Dr. John Steele

References for Lunar Eclipses of Historical Interest

Brewer, B., Eclipse, Earth View, Seattle, 1991

Humphreys, Colin J. and Waddington, W. G., "Dating the Crucifixion", Nature, Vol. 306, No. 5945, p.743-746, 22 December 1983

Littmann, M., Espenak, F., and Willcox, K. Totality - Eclipses of the Sun (3rd Ed.), Oxford University Press, New York, 2008.

Schaefer, Bradley E., "Solar Eclipses That Changed the World", Sky and Telescope, May, 1994, p.36-39

Schaefer, Bradley E., "Lunar Eclipses That Changed the World", Sky and Telescope, December, 1992, p.639-642

Schaefer, Bradley E., "Dating the Crucifixion", Sky and Telescope, April, 1989, p.374

Schaefer, Bradley E., "Lunar Visibility and the Crucifixion", Q.Jl. R. astr. Soc., 1990, 31, p.53-67

Steel, Duncan, Eclipse: The Celestial Phenomenon That Changed the Course of History (Washington, D.C.: The Joseph Henry Press, 2001)


Lunar eclipse predictions must take into account the enlargement of Earth's shadows. In this Catalog, Earth's penumbral and umbral shadow sizes have been calculated using Danjon's enlargement method.

The coordinates of the Sun used in the predictions are based on the VSOP87 theory [Bretagnon and Francou, 1988]. The Moon's coordinates are based on the ELP-2000/82 theory [Chapront-Touze and Chapront, 1983]. For more information, see: Solar and Lunar Ephemerides. The revised value used for the Moon's secular acceleration is n-dot = -25.858 arc-sec/cy*cy, as deduced from the Apollo lunar laser ranging experiment (Chapront, Chapront-Touze, and Francou, 2002).

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-2006: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. Post-2006: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -1999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.


The data presented here are based on predictions published in:

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