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What is the origin of the English Ship Building Philosophy?

What is the origin of the English Ship Building Philosophy?


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I was reading an article on the Vasa the ship built under command of King Gustav Adolf, the ship sank during its launch on August 10, 1628. Part if the article mentions that the ship was somehow unbalanced and the idea proposed is that it was built with two different philosophies. One of which is the English/Mediterranean version which supposedly were built around frames with well structured and precise measurements for the planking, the other half of the ship was supposedly done by the Dutch method which just built the ships quickly from the bottom up.

I can kind of understand the Dutch version, at least from a land perspective where like a house you can craft something from the bottom up and use what you have; which is the suggestion of the Dutch method. But what would be the origin of the English method which obviously meant a more involved process with craftsmen and some serious education to deal with the mathematics it would take to design the ship before it was built. In some ways I'd almost see this as going back to the early civilizations in Europe (like the Romans or the Greeks) with the knowledge passed down or evolving over time. Would this be the case or did this arise out of a later time?


In Europe there were historically two ways to build ships. Wikipedia refers to them as Clinker and Carvel. Carvel originated in the Mediterranean while Clinker was more typical in the Atlantic. Clinker-built requires less caulking so is more lightweight and simpler to build, resulting in a flexible hull well suited for the rigours of ocean travel.

However, the flexibility is a disadvantage the larger the ship is, especially if it needs to support complex sailing rigs such as for lateen sails (which are necessary when sailing across or close to the wind.) Thus, for the large sailing ships that were to come, the more complex Carvel-built became necessary.


Primarily the team of John Hawkins and Mathew Baker.

Hawkins had made several transatlantic voyages in the 1560s using typical English ships for the time. They were ok in the North and Irish seas, but the design was not well suited for the blue waters of the Atlantic. He came back determined to design something new.

After some domestic adventures which are not relevant here, Hawkins struck a bargain with the Queen to build and refit the Royal Navy on a fixed price contract. He tapped Baker, a young ship designer with some new ideas, and revolutionized North Atlantic ship building.

Before Hawkins, the ship designer would carve small (not scale) model and the ship was built by reference to the model. Starting with Hawkins and Baker, plans were drawn on paper with careful measurements and curves were plotted according to mathematics (and inspired by predatory fish).

So, to answer your question, the art of shipbuilding was an oral lore handed down from master to apprentice until the late 16th century, when John Hawkins and Mathew Baker turned it into the science of navel architecture.

Hawkins made a lot of other changes, but that is a different story. :-)


This answer obviously comes from a class and economistic perspective, don't ask for cites because I'd need to spend four weeks or more researching to give you an "encyclopaedia" grade answer, let alone a genuine research answer.

1628 is prior to the establishment of scientific hydrology, or bourgeois controlled militarisation of hydrology under state contract. The probable issue being gestured towards is a failure to mesh between the person acting (effectively) as naval architect and the master craftsmen; or, amongst master craftsmen themselves.

1628 is well before the bourgeois attempt to colonise the knowledge structure of the 3rd Estate generally (ie: craft and trade knowledges).

[In part the circumstances of the accommodations of the Dutch and English bourgeoisie in their capitals and ports with the remainder of the 3rd estate and the localism of knowledge and production is probably a factor here. Conscious control of shipbuilding, outside of Absolute Monarch interest, was rare, ships were build individually and to order, and then abused heartily. Dutch constructions and English constructions even as early as 1628 emphasised different structural characteristics in naval architecture due to the "home waters" of each (more or less) protestant city differing, but at the same time Holland's city had higher fluidity than London, leading again to different emphases in early modern naval architecture].


This Is Where the Word 'History' Comes From

A merican inventor Henry Ford famously said that history is “more or less bunk.” Others have characterized history differently: as the essence of innumerable biographies, as a picture of human crimes and misfortunes, as nothing but an agreed upon fable, as something that is bound to repeat itself.

It’s hard to define such a monumental thing without grappling with the tensions between what is fact and what is fiction, as well as what was included and what was left out. So it’s only fitting that those tensions are wrapped up in the history of the word itself.

The short version is that the term history has evolved from an ancient Greek verb that means “to know,” says the Oxford English Dictionary’s Philip Durkin. The Greek word historia originally meant inquiry, the act of seeking knowledge, as well as the knowledge that results from inquiry. And from there it’s a short jump to the accounts of events that a person might put together from making inquiries &mdash what we might call stories.

The words story and history share much of their lineage, and in previous eras, the overlap between them was much messier than it is today. “That working out of distinction,” says Durkin, “has taken centuries and centuries.” Today, we might think of the dividing line as the one between fact and fiction. Stories are fanciful tales woven at bedtime, the plots of melodramatic soap operas. That word can even be used to describe an outright lie. Histories, on the other hand, are records of events. That word refers to all time preceding this very moment and everything that really happened up to now.

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Answers to Nautical Trivia Quiz

Here are the answers to the trivia questions on the previous page:

1. A vessel under tow in fog should give one long sound blast followed by three short blasts. Repeat at two-minute intervals.

2. In historic sailing ships, women were occasionally smuggled aboard - and many naturally became pregnant in due course. Childbirth at sea traditionally happened between cannons on the gun deck, and the child was recorded in the ship's log as a son of a gun.

3. "Mayday" is said to have originated from the French phrase "M'aidez" - meaning "Help me."

4. Although salinity varies in different oceans and locations, on average sea water is about 3.5% dissolved salts.

5. An "angel" is another term for an anchor kellet or sentinel. This is a weight that is suspended from the anchor rode some distance down from the bow to lower the angle between the lower part of the rode and the sea bottom, thus increasing its holding power while also providing slack to absorb the strain caused by gusts and waves, especially when there is not room to let out sufficient scope.

6. Water going down a drain swirls counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. So just put some water in the galley sink and watch after you pull the plug. This is called the Coriolis effect, which also influences ocean and wind currents.

7. Ancraophobia is fear of the wind.

8. The term originally used for the left side of the boat was larboard. Given its similarity in sound to "starboard," you can see how the term "port" became preferable over time. "Starboard" derived from Old English terms for steering board (on the right side of historic ships). Larboard possibly came from the words for loading and board - and ships were traditionally docked on their left side for loading. "Port" is thought to have the same meaning: the side put to the wharf when in port.

9. Sailors in port in Yokohama liked to visit Hunki-Dori street when they felt carefree - in the center of the city's red light district where sailors were wont to go after a long time at sea.

10. Rum punch can be made in various ways, but this ditty helps you recall the basics. One part of lime juice (sour) two parts of sugar syrup or a sweet juice like orange or pineapple (sweet) three parts rum (strong) and four parts water or any lighter juice (weak).

How'd you score? Good enough to celebrate by flying three sheets to the wind?

Much of this nautical trivia comes from the Sailing Pocket Companion from Pavilion Books.


The English Oak

The mighty English oak* is woven into the history and folklore of England.

Druids would worship in oak groves, couples would marry under their spreading branches and the Yule Log, decorated for Christmas with holly and mistletoe, was traditionally cut from oak. Acorns, the fruit of the oak, were carried by folk as charms to bring good luck and good health.

The timber, prized for its strength and durability, is still used in the construction of houses, furniture making and of course, shipbuilding. The English oak has always enjoyed a close association with the Royal Navy, whose ships were constructed from oak timbers until the middle of the 19th century, earning the Senior Service the nickname ‘the Wooden Walls of Old England’. Since the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660 there have been eight warships called HMS Royal Oak, and ‘Heart of Oak’ is the official march of the Royal Navy.

Over the centuries, oak has been used to make barrels to store wines and spirits, and its bark is also used in the leather tanning process. Until the early twentieth century, the large round growths found on the trunks of oak trees, known as called oak galls, were used in the production of ink.

More recently, the image of an oak tree has appeared on the reverse of the pound coin and the National Trust uses a sprig of oak leaves and acorns as its emblem. ‘The Royal Oak’ is also one of the most popular names for pubs in Britain!

The composer Charles Dibdin called the oak ‘England’s Tree of Liberty’ in his 1795 patriotic song of the same name, the first verse of which is as follows:

“When Freedom knew not where to rove,
From conquer’d Greece and groaning Rome,
At random driv’n like Noah’s dove,
Without a shelter or a home:
Th’ expanded world she view’d, where best,
She might repose her weary foot
Saw this our isle, set up her rest,
And bade the spreading oak take root
Bade it adorn the land, and be
Fair England’s tree of Liberty.”

The oak even plays a part in weather prediction:

If the oak before the ash,
Then we’ll only have a splash.
If the ash before the oak,
Then we’ll surely have a soak!

There are more oaks in England than any other woodland tree. Their distinctive shape makes them easy to spot in the English landscape. Because of their size (they can grow to over 30 metres) and the fact they can live for over 1,000 years, much of the folklore surrounding these mighty trees concerns individual oaks.

Perhaps the most famous of these is the Royal Oak, in which the future King Charles II is said to have hidden from the Roundheads at Boscobel House following the Battle of Worcester in 1651 during the English Civil War. The king’s own account, dictated some years later to Samuel Pepys, records how he hid in a great oak tree whilst Parliamentarian soldiers searched below. After the Restoration in 1660, Charles inaugurated 29th May as Royal Oak Day (or Oak Apple Day) to celebrate his escape.

Another ancient oak is to be found in Greenwich Park, London. It is believed that Queen Elizabeth’s Oak (above) dates back to the 12th century according to legend, King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn once danced around it and Queen Elizabeth I picnicked under it. Unfortunately this illustrious tree was brought down in a heavy storm in 1991 but it remains, slowly decaying, in the park with a young oak planted beside it.

In Leicestershire, ancient pollarded oaks can be found in Bradgate Park. These trees were allegedly ‘decapitated’ in 1554 by foresters as a sign of respect, following the beheading of Lady Jane Grey who was born at nearby Bradgate Hall.

At the foot of Glastonbury Tor in Somerset stand two very ancient oaks, reputedly over 2000 years old and known as Gog and Magog. It is thought they may be the last remnants of an avenue of oaks leading up to the Tor, itself steeped in myth and legend.

Today the Major Oak (above) is reputed to be the UK’s largest oak tree. It stands in the heart of Sherwood Forest and according to legend, Robin Hood and his Merry Men would camp under its canopy. A popular tourist attraction, the veteran tree is thought to be around 800 to 1000 years old.


3. Henry Sidgwick

Henry Sidgwick's (1838&ndash1900) The Methods of Ethics (1874) is one of the most well known works in utilitarian moral philosophy, and deservedly so. It offers a defense of utilitarianism, though some writers (Schneewind 1977) have argued that it should not primarily be read as a defense of utilitarianism. In The Methods Sidgwick is concerned with developing an account of &ldquo&hellipthe different methods of Ethics that I find implicit in our common moral reasoning&hellip&rdquo These methods are egoism, intuition based morality, and utilitarianism. On Sidgwick's view, utilitarianism is the more basic theory. A simple reliance on intuition, for example, cannot resolve fundamental conflicts between values, or rules, such as Truth and Justice that may conflict. In Sidgwick's words &ldquo&hellipwe require some higher principle to decide the issue&hellip&rdquo That will be utilitarianism. Further, the rules which seem to be a fundamental part of common sense morality are often vague and underdescribed, and applying them will actually require appeal to something theoretically more basic &mdash again, utilitarianism. Yet further, absolute interpretations of rules seem highly counter-intuitive, and yet we need some justification for any exceptions &mdash provided, again, by utilitarianism. Sidgwick provides a compelling case for the theoretical primacy of utilitarianism.

Sidgwick was also a British philosopher, and his views developed out of and in response to those of Bentham and Mill. His Methods offer an engagement with the theory as it had been presented before him, and was an exploration of it and the main alternatives as well as a defense.

Sidgwick was also concerned with clarifying fundamental features of the theory, and in this respect his account has been enormously influential to later writers, not only to utilitarians and consequentialists, generally, but to intuitionists as well. Sidgwick's thorough and penetrating discussion of the theory raised many of the concerns that have been developed by recent moral philosophers.

One extremely controversial feature of Sidgwick's views relates to his rejection of a publicity requirement for moral theory. He writes:

This accepts that utilitarianism may be self-effacing that is, that it may be best if people do not believe it, even though it is true. Further, it rendered the theory subject to Bernard Williams' (1995) criticism that the theory really simply reflected the colonial elitism of Sidgwick's time, that it was &lsquoGovernment House Utilitarianism.&rsquo The elitism in his remarks may reflect a broader attitude, one in which the educated are considered better policy makers than the uneducated.

One issue raised in the above remarks is relevant to practical deliberation in general. To what extent should proponents of a given theory, or a given rule, or a given policy &mdash or even proponents of a given one-off action &mdash consider what they think people will actually do, as opposed to what they think those same people ought to do (under full and reasonable reflection, for example)? This is an example of something that comes up in the Actualism/possibilism debate in accounts of practical deliberation. Extrapolating from the example used above, we have people who advocate telling the truth, or what they believe to be the truth, even if the effects are bad because the truth is somehow misused by others. On the other hand are those who recommend not telling the truth when it is predicted that the truth will be misused by others to achieve bad results. Of course it is the case that the truth ought not be misused, that its misuse can be avoided and is not inevitable, but the misuse is entirely predictable. Sidgwick seems to recommending that we follow the course that we predict will have the best outcome, given as part of our calculations the data that others may fail in some way &mdash either due to having bad desires, or simply not being able to reason effectively. The worry Williams points to really isn't a worry specifically with utilitarianism (Driver 2011). Sidgwick would point out that if it is bad to hide the truth, because &lsquoGovernment House&rsquo types, for example, typically engage in self-deceptive rationalizations of their policies (which seems entirely plausible), then one shouldn't do it. And of course, that heavily influences our intuitions.

Sidgwick raised issues that run much deeper to our basic understanding of utilitarianism. For example, the way earlier utilitarians characterized the principle of utility left open serious indeterminacies. The major one rests on the distinction between total and average utility. He raised the issue in the context of population growth and increasing utility levels by increasing numbers of people (or sentient beings):

For Sidgwick, the conclusion on this issue is not to simply strive to greater average utility, but to increase population to the point where we maximize the product of the number of persons who are currently alive and the amount of average happiness. So it seems to be a hybrid, total-average view. This discussion also raised the issue of policy with respect to population growth, and both would be pursued in more detail by later writers, most notably Derek Parfit (1986).


The History And Meaning Of The Rainbow Pride Flag

Stroll across any number of cities throughout June, and you’ll find the near-ubiquitous presence of the rainbow pride flag, which has come to represent the LGBTQ community worldwide. This year alone, the iconic, six-stripe pattern has been seen in children’s books, at theme parks and on a seemingly endless series of clothing lines a revamped version of the design was worn by “Master of None” writer and star Lena Waithe as a “queer superhero” cape at the Met Gala last month in New York.

The original rainbow pride flag dates back to 1978, when it was created by San Francisco-based queer artist Gilbert Baker for a mere $1,000. A self-described “geeky kid from Kansas,” Baker relocated to San Francisco as an Army draftee in 1970. After an honorable discharge from the military, he decided to remain in the City by the Bay to pursue a design career.

In 1974, Baker’s life changed forever when he was introduced to rising queer activist Harvey Milk, who owned a camera shop in San Francisco’s Castro district. Milk, of course, would go on to win a seat as a San Francisco city supervisor in 1977, becoming the first openly gay man elected to public office in California in the process. Along with writer Cleve Jones and filmmaker Artie Bressan, Milk pressed Baker to create a recognizable emblem of empowerment for the queer community. The artist looked back to America’s bicentennial celebrations over the previous year for inspiration.

“As a community, both local and international, gay people were in the midst of an upheaval, a battle for equal rights, a shift in status where we were now demanding power, taking it. This was our new revolution: a tribal, individualistic, and collective vision. It deserved a new symbol,” Baker wrote in his as-yet-unpublished memoir, excerpts of which have appear on the Gilbert Baker Estate’s website.

“I thought of the American flag with its thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, the colonies breaking away from England to form the United States,” he wrote. “I thought of the vertical red, white, and blue tricolor from the French Revolution and how both flags owed their beginnings to a riot, a rebellion, or revolution. I thought a gay nation should have a flag too, to proclaim its own idea of power.”

Milk went on to ride under the original, eight-striped rainbow pride flag at the San Francisco Gay Freedom Day Parade in June 1978, just months before he was assassinated. Over the next two years, the design was altered to its current, six-stripe version, but the flag’s all-inclusive message remained intact.

Baker, who died in 2017, never became rich from his design, but it has since been used to symbolize solidarity with LGBTQ movements not just in the U.S. but around the world.

In the years since its creation, the flag has generated a mythology of its own, which Baker “understood was something beyond his control,” according to close friend Charles Beal, who is also manager of creative projects at the Gilbert Baker Estate. “He purposely never copyrighted the flag because he wanted it to be owned by everyone.”

In honor of LGBTQ Pride month, Beal spoke with HuffPost to discuss the history of his friend’s flag.

When the rainbow pride flag was unveiled in 1978, its colors were hot pink, red, orange, yellow, green, turquoise, indigo and violet.

Over the next two years, its design was changed for different reasons. At the time, hot pink was a non-standard color in flag fabric production, and deemed too costly to reproduce. The turquoise and indigo stripes were also dropped in favor of royal blue when organizers of San Francisco's Gay Freedom Day Parade wanted to split the flag in half to fly across the street and wanted equal stripes on both sides.

Throughout history, closeted gay men have used brightly colored clothing or accessories as a form of covert communication to signal their sexual interests and desires to other men. (Oscar Wilde, for instance, famously wore a green carnation.) In Nazi Germany, pink triangles were used to identify male prisoners who had been sent to concentration camps because of their homosexuality.

Baker saw the flag as a way of incorporating various colors into a single, coherent symbol. Of the pink triangle, he later wrote. "It functioned as a Nazi tool of oppression. We all felt that we needed something that was positive, that celebrated our love."

One of the most persistent myths about the flag is that it was an intentional reference to &ldquoOver the Rainbow,&rdquo the Oscar-winning song from the classic 1939 film, &ldquoThe Wizard of Oz.&rdquo

Not so, says Beal &ndash though there&rsquos a likely explanation for the confusion. The movie&rsquos star, Judy Garland, was beloved by gay audiences during her lifetime and remains a queer icon. Garland also is often culturally linked to the Stonewall riots, which are considered the start of the modern LGBTQ rights movement and took place on June 28, 1969 &ndash less than 24 hours after her funeral.

Baker, Beal said, wasn&rsquot bothered by this misconception and found it somewhat endearing. Like the fictional Dorothy, he was raised in Kansas.

Though the rainbow flag is his best-known creation, Baker worked for San Francisco's now-defunct Paramount Flag Company for years.

Later in life, he worked as a freelance designer, and created flags for the 1984 Democratic National Convention and Super Bowl XIX in 1985, among other occasions.

Baker set a world record in 2003 to mark the rainbow flag's 25th anniversary, creating a 1- and 1/4-mile-long version unfurled at Florida's Key West Pride that same year.

The artist restored the original hot pink, turquoise and indigo stripes for the massive flag, which was chronicled in the 2004 documentary, &ldquoRainbow Pride.&rdquo After the celebrations in Key West ended, the flag was cut into sections and distributed to more than 100 cities around the world.

On June 26, 2015, the Supreme Court legalized same-sex marriage nationwide. The White House celebrated the ruling by illuminating its façade in rainbow colors, as did New York's Empire State Building, San Francisco&rsquos City Hall and Walt Disney World&rsquos Cinderella Castle.

Seeing the illumination of those landmarks &ldquoblew Baker&rsquos mind,&rdquo Beal said. &ldquoI think he was overwhelmed with joy that this flag made by hippies&hellip in San Francisco had become a permanent worldwide symbol.&rdquo

Baker was especially forever grateful to Jeff Tiller, who was then the White House&rsquos associate communications director and reportedly conceived the idea.

&ldquo[Tiller] really lit the fuse,&rdquo Beal said.

Weeks ahead of the 2016 presidential election, Trump hoisted an upside-down rainbow flag on which the words &ldquoLGBT for Trump&rdquo had been scribbled in black marker at a rally in Greeley, Colorado.

The move seemed out of place, given both the tone of Trump&rsquos campaign and his vice presidential running mate, Mike Pence, who has a record of opposition to LGBTQ rights.

Baker responded to Trump&rsquos election, Beal said, by creating a nine-color rainbow flag with a lavender stripe added for diversity. He also unveiled an art installation of concentration camp-style uniforms emblazoned with oversize pink triangles that was displayed at a San Francisco gallery.

&ldquoThat&rsquos how much he feared the Trump regime,&rdquo Beal said.

In 2017, Philadelphia unveiled a new flag with black and brown stripes added to represent people of color who previously felt &rdquomarginalized, ignored, and even intentionally excluded" from its Pride celebrations.

Philly's flag was created after a series of complaints against LGBTQ bars in the city, some of which had allegedly denied entry to people of color based on vague dress codes. The revised flag sparked controversy among some critics, who viewed adding stripes to Baker's original design as disrespectful.

This was the version Waithe (in the photo immediately above) wore to the Met Ball.

As for Baker, "he would have loved it," Beal said. "He was not precious about how the flag was used -- he might have added those colors to the flag himself for them."

#TheFutureIsQueer is HuffPost’s monthlong celebration of queerness, not just as an identity but as action in the world. Find all of our Pride Month coverage here.


The Historical Origins of the Idea of Development in Children

The idea of development did not begin or end with children. The idea of development in children arose from a set of older ideas about natural and human history. By the mid-nineteenth century, ideas about evolution, development, and progress formed a virtual trinity. Evolutionary history (phylogeny), individual development (ontogeny), and social change (history) all illustrated and revealed development. When systematic child study began in the United States, it entered through an ideological prism of evolution, progress, and development.

Although arguments for development in both natural and human history were not new, the nineteenth is most famously known as the century of "history," ⋞velopment," and "progress." Prior to the publication of the theories of the English naturalist Charles Darwin (1809�), the Scottish publisher and author Robert Chambers (1802�), in his influential 1844 anonymously published book, Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation, maintained that alongside gravitation there was one great law of life–the law of development. Just as inorganic matter was governed by the principle of gravitation, so all of life was governed by the principle of development. The English philosopher Herbert Spencer (1820�) captured the optimistic spirit of the times when he wrote that the ultimate development of the ideal man (in his words) was logically certain progress was not an accident for Spencer, it was a necessity. Civilization, Spencer wrote, was not artificial, but part of nature and all of a piece of a developing embryo or the unfolding of a flower. This was no mere analogy for either Spencer or the American culture that so warmly welcomed him.

Amidst the din of development, Darwin remained (arguably) neutral. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection, as set forth in his seminal work, On the Origin of Species (1859), served not only as a radical secular theory of the origin of humans it also provided a new scientific sanction for a set of older beliefs. Though Darwin himself was not committed to the notion that the evolutionary record implied development or progress–that human beings are necessarily more ⋞veloped" than other species, or that species perfect themselves through evolutionary change–many of his predecessors and proponents were just so committed. Darwin's theory of gradual, nonprogressive evolutionary change was assimilated into a culture that was ideologically prepared to receive and transform Darwin into a spokesman for development in general. Armed with the authority of science, developmental zealots seized upon the new and secular science to confirm and extend a set of older ideas. Biologists, philosophers, historians, and many of the blossoming new social and political scientists seized Darwin's theory of evolution as a platform for demonstrating development in fields far and wide. So-called evolutionary theists worked hard at reconciling the Biblical account of human origin with the new science. Many solved the dilemma by assimilating natural law as a visible demonstration of God's work. Riots of analogies were drawn between the development of different animal species, human races, civilizations, and children. The idea of development, broadly construed and expressed in fields as divergent as evolutionary theory, philosophy, anthropology, and history formed, the dominant intellectual context for the systematic study of development in children. The child's development served to demonstrate the connection between development in evolution and the development of civilization. The child became a linchpin𠄺 link between natural and human history.


c.1400, chokkeful “crammed full,” possibly from choke “cheek” (see cheek (n.)). Or it may be from Old French choquier “collide, crash, hit” [similar to shock].

Middle English chokkeful already had the same meaning as modern chock-full. Both this word and choke “to strangle” likely derive ultimately from Old English words meaning “jaw, cheek.” The end result is the same: a mouthful.

Alternately, chokkeful may derive from a more violent word: forced full.

(Wiktionary offers a false etymology based on the kind of chocks used in carpentry and shipbuilding: full up to the chocks, perhaps. However that sense of chock only dates to the 1670s, far too late to influence the Middle English word.)


Harada Corporation's MISSION is
what we perform every day to show our raison d'etre,
our VISION is what we create through the MISSION,
our VALUE is what we offer to society,
our SPIRIT is what we hold important in our work,
and our SLOGAN is what we simply express
by one phrase as our corporate philosophy.
Harada Corporation will continue to challenge and grow
with these words in our hearts.

The mission we fulfill every day

As challengers ourselves,
we keep co-creating the best move
to be a partner for innovation.

The future we want to create

Toward a world in which
everyone feel delight and
pride through challenges.

The values we offer to society

Create a new culture through challenges.

Propose the best move inspired by unique perspectives.

Perform valuable work of which all feel proud together.

Focus on exceptional quality at every moment.

Continue to be a partner to challenge and grow together.


20th Century - The Present: The Creation of the National Park

Sheep looking out over Great Langdale

Whilst Cumbria and the Lake District were largely ignored during the World Wars, the town of Barrow-in-Furness with its large shipbuilding industry did suffer numerous bombing blitzes by the Luftwaffe, resulting in many casualties and damage to thousands of properties.

Within the Lake District itself, the first half of the twentieth century saw children&rsquos author Beatrix Potter become a prominent figure amongst the farming community, and she has been widely credited with ensuring the survival of the Herdwick sheep. When she died in 1943 she had amassed around 4,000-acres of land that she bequeathed to the National Trust, most of which is open today to members of the public.

In 1949, the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act was passed, which provided the legal basis for the formation of national parks in England and Wales, as well as addressing issues of access onto private land, something that had become a hotly contested topic as increasing numbers of the public visited the countryside.

Just two years after the act had passed in 1951, the Lake District National Park was created, thus bringing even more visitors to the area. In 1955, Alfred Wainwright published his Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells, with hand-drawn maps of 214 fells and detailed information on how to access each one. It later became a challenge for fell walkers to reach the summit of each one of the 214 fells, known as "The Wainwrights".

Today the area attracts nearly 16 million annual visitors, drawn to its stunning landscapes, outstanding opportunities for activities/sports, festivals/events, historic buildings, and plethora of tourist attractions.


Watch the video: The history of English combined (May 2022).