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Comparative Timelines of Egypt & Kush

Comparative Timelines of Egypt & Kush


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Kush is a Egyptian Kushite tribal monarchy located in the Egypt and Horn of Africa region of the African continent. The tribal monarchy exists at the start of the timeline year 2, with their cores, bordering fellow Egyptian Beja . Blemmyes to the east, Hellenic Rome to the north. and uncolonized native land to the west and south.

The rest of the Kush lands will be taken by Fetishist Nobatia , Fetishist Makuria and Chalcedonian Aksum in 350, losing their cores and never appear on-map again.


Chronology of the Predynastic

Recent reworking of the chronology combining archaeological and radiocarbon dating by British archaeologist Michael Dee and colleagues has shortened the length of the Predynastic. Dates on the table represent their results at 95% probability.

  • Early Predynastic (Badarian) (ca 4426–3616 BCE)
  • Middle Predynastic (Naqada IB and IC or Amratian) (ca 3731–3350 BCE)
  • Late Predynastic (Naqada IIB/IIC or Gerzean) (ca 3562–3367 BCE)
  • Terminal Predynastic (Naqada IID/IIIA or Proto-Dynastic) (ca 3377–3328 BCE)
  • First Dynasty (rule of Aha) begins ca. 3218 BCE.

Scholars typically divide the predynastic period, as with most of Egyptian history, into upper (southern) and lower (northern, near the Delta region) Egypt. Lower Egypt (Maadi culture) appears to have developed farming communities first, with the spread of farming from Lower Egypt (north) to Upper Egypt (south). Thus, the Badarian communities predate the Nagada in Upper Egypt. Current evidence as to the origin of the rise of the Egyptian state is under debate, but some evidence points to Upper Egypt, specifically Nagada, as the focus of the original complexity. Some of the evidence for the complexity of the Maadi may be hidden beneath the Nile delta's alluvium.


Rise of the Kush Kingdom

At the beginning of the Middle Phase about 2000 BC, the capital of Kerma emerged as one of the major economic and political centers in the Nile Valley. This growth was at the same time as the rise of the Kush an important trading partner and an intimidating rival to pharaohs of the Middle Kingdom. Kerma was the seat of the Kushite rulers, and the city developed into a foreign trade-based society with mud-brick architecture, dealing in ivory, diorite, and gold.

During the Middle Kerma phase, the Egyptian fortress on Batn el-Haja served as the boundary between Middle Kingdom Egypt and the Kushite kingdom, and it is where exotic goods were exchanged between the two governments.


Cush (Kush)

(1) Cush was the name of an ancient kingdom in N.E. Africa. The portion of the Nile Valley between the First and Sixth Cataracts was called Cush by the pharaonic Egyptians, though western nations preferred the Greek appellation Nubia. One of the earliest mentions of the name Cush is found on an inscription of the early Middle Kingdom (c. 1970 B.C.E.). During the second millennium B.C.E. Cush was absorbed into the Egyptian empire, first as far as the Second Cataract under the Middle Kingdom rulers and then as far as the Sixth by the New Kingdom pharaohs. When the New Kingdom disintegrated (c. 1050 B.C.E.), Cush, which had been thoroughly Egyptianized, gained its independence under a line of native kings. It was probably the Cushite king Shabako (c. 707�) who encouraged *Hezekiah of Judah to resist the Assyrians under Sennacherib and sent the relief army that the Assyrians crushed at the battle of Eletekh in 701 B.C.E., since Taharka ( *Tirhakah ), mentioned in II Kings 19:9 and Isaiah 37:9, had not yet come to the throne. In fact, the biblical account is believed by some scholars to be a conflation of two campaigns. After the Assyrian conquest of Egypt in 666 B.C.E., Taharka's successor Tanwentamani at first succeeded in freeing Upper Egypt as far as Memphis from the Assyrians in about 663� B.C.E., but he was driven out by the avenging armies of Ashurbanipal. The ancient capital of Thebes was so savagely plundered that 50 years later it served the prophet Nahum as an example for the forthcoming destruction of Nineveh (Nah. 3:8, 10). From this time on, Cush ceased to intervene in the affairs of Egypt.

(2) According to the Bible, Cush was the son of Ham (Gen. 2:13 10:6𠄸 Ezek. 38:5 I Chron. 1:8�) and the eponym of the N.E. African people. In several verses the name refers to other peoples the distinction is not clear in every single case (Num. 12:1 II Chron. 14:8 21:16). In the Septuagint the name appears in two forms: in those verses in which it designates the son of Ham it appears in the form Χονς while in other cases it is Αιθιοπια, i.e., Ethiopia. Most modern translations follow the Septuagint. The whole of East Africa was called Cush by the Greeks, and in modern times "Cushi" is a Hebrew term for a black person.

Sources:A.J. Arkell, History of the Sudan (1961 2 ), 55� Lambdin, in: IDB, 2 (1962), 176𠄷 (incl. bibl.) Wilson, ibid., 4 (1962), 652 (incl. bibl.).

[Alan Richard Schulman]

Encyclopaedia Judaica. © 2008 The Gale Group. All Rights Reserved.

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Piye Defeats Egypt, Nubian King

The Egyptians were a powerful civilization on Earth at one point in time, and this kingdom had even grown into an empire ruling other lands. Over the course of time, the Egyptian’s power began to decline and around 1000 B.C. they were no longer a major power.

The Egyptian kingdom became corrupt and started to go into decline. It was during Egypt’s demise that foreign rulers wanted to seize Egypt‘s power and greatness for their own. One such ruler was King PIY of Nubia or Kush. This appears on the Old Testament Timeline with World History around 740 BC. The Nubians were an African kingdom that lied south of Egypt in the modern day territory of Sudan. This kingdom had been in existence almost as long as the Egyptian’s have been in power.

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Egypt ruled Nubia at different points in their history and much of what went on inside of Egypt also affected the Nubians. Many Nubian rulers also reigned on the throne at various times in Egypt’s history. It was about 740 B.C. when Piye ruled Nubia and Upper Egypt. During his time in power, he wanted to rule the whole entire land, and this means that he had to capture Lower Egypt as well. He waited until the kingdom was engulfed in inner turmoil and strife before he made his move..While the Egyptian leaders were fighting among themselves, he quickly moved his armies into Lower Egypt.

He then persuaded an Egyptian ruler to take his side, and he started to attack key areas inside of Lower Egypt. He took key cities such as Memphis and Hermopolis and forced the kings in theNile Delta region area to surrender to his power. Pharoah Tefnakt was the head ruler of Lower Egypt, and he ultimately had to surrender to Piye from a far away location in the Delta region.

Once Piye conquered the region he went back to Nubia and allowed the defeated rulers to govern the territory as long as they paid homage and tribute to Nubia. Piye was also known as Painkhy, which was the way his name probably would have been written and pronounced in ancient times. His brief conquest of Egypt marked the first time that a Nubian was able to control the Egyptian kingdom. Piye made sure that his victory over Egypt would be well remembered by the people.

He made a steel or a statue made out of stone or wood that was used to record of his victory. Piye had a detailed inscription of the battle created on his stele. He wanted to make sure that future generations would know about his accomplishments. Another thing that should be noted about Piye’s conquest of Egypt is that the king only wanted to conquer Egypt and not rule this land. Some historians claim that he realized that the land of Egypt was in decline and that a lot of reform would have been needed to get it back in order.

Piye probably realized that this would have been probably more than he could handle. It also would have been hard for him to maintain control of the different regions and kings in each territory. Piye just left the Egyptians to deal with their own mess and as long as they paid him tribute and homage he obviously didn’t care who actually ran the kingdom.


5 Kingdom Of Kush

Relatively unknown outside of Africa, the kingdom of Kush was located in present-day Sudan. This civilization was strikingly similar to Egypt and once ruled like Egyptian pharaohs. The Kushites also mummified their dead, built pyramids as burial grounds, and worshiped crazy gods. However, there were several key differences between the two cultures.

Iron had become a huge resource for Kush while the Egyptians were still discovering the wonders of this metal. Women also played a much bigger role in Kush society, and queens often succeeded the kings. In fact, one of the biggest pyramids in Kush was built to honor a female ruler.

Kush was also famous for its archers, who were often depicted in artwork. However, it&rsquos theorized that their culture declined after Kush was invaded by Ezana from Axum and then taken over by a new society called the X-Group (aka the Ballana culture).


The Ancient Civilization of Kush – 2000 BC-350 AD

The Ancient Civilization of Kush existed 2,350 years. During that time they lost and regained power from Egypt and eventually established an extensive trading network.

South of Egypt, along the Nile River Valley, the ancient civilization of Kush existed from about 2000 B.C. to 350 A.D. The first settlers to arrive in the Northeast region of Africa in 3500 B.C., in the lands known as Nubia, were among Egypt’s first neighbors. Over time, these neighbors would be peaceful trading partners and strong rivals.

The early Nubians were attracted to the Nile River Valley because of its fertile soil and natural resources of gold, copper, and stone. The Nile River flooded each year, leaving behind rich deposits of silt, which contributed to the abundant farm lands. Crops grown in the area were wheat, barley, and other grains, and cattle also grazed in the tall grasses of the Nile River Valley.

The Ancient Civilization of Kush

Because of abundant winter and summer crops, some farmers became very wealthy and powerful. Leaders and natural rulers began to emerge within farming villages. One strong ruler, in one of Nubia’s farming villages, took control of all neighboring villages and pronounced himself king of all Nubian lands. As a result, the new Kingdom of Kush came into being around 2000 B.C.

The first Capital of Kush was Kerma, which was just south of a stretch of Cataracts on the Nile River. These cataracts provided a natural barrier against attack, and so the kingdom thrived. As this culture became more diverse, people began to take on more complex roles in society such as that of priests and artisans.

Egypt Conquers Kush

Egypt and Kush were neighbors, and sometimes they had peaceful trading relationships, and other times they were enemies. Kush was a steady supplier of slaves, gold, copper, ebony, ivory and stone to Egypt. They provided these goods to Egypt as a means of keeping the peace with the Egyptian pharaohs and to avoid being attacked. However, this arrangement would soon fall apart.

Kush was becoming very wealthy from trade, and the Egyptian Pharaoh and priests felt that Kush was becoming too powerful. So, around 1500 B.C., the pharaoh Thutmose I sent an army to take control of Kush. The Egyptian army conquered all of the lands of Nubia, and destroyed the Kushite Capital at Kerma. Later Egyptian pharaohs like Ramses the Great built temples and monuments in what were once lands belonging to Kush.

Egypt controlled the lands of Kush for 450 years. During this time, many Egyptians moved into the lands of Kush, and soon the Egyptian culture had a dominating influence over the people of Kush. Kushites began to wear Egyptian style clothing, they worshipped Egyptian gods, and Egyptian became the official language of the land.

However, after a series of wars and weak pharaohs, the New Kingdom of Egypt began to loose power in the mid 1000’s B.C., Kush leaders saw this as their opportunity to regain their power from the once oppressive Egyptian Kingdoms.

Kush Regains Power and Rules Egypt

By about 850 B.C. Kush was once again becoming a strong and powerful kingdom. Around 700 B.C., The Kushite King Kashta sent armies to invade and conquer Egypt around 751 B.C. A new capital was established 100 miles south of Kerma along the Nile River in the city of Napata.

After Kashta died, his son Piankhi became the ruler of Kush. He was known for his military might and deep religious views. Piankhi felt that the Gods wanted him to rule all of Egypt, and he fought fiercely to accomplish this task. By the time of his death in 716 B.C., Piankhi had control of all lands along the Nile River Valley from Napata to the Nile River Delta.

The Kushite Dynasty

After Piankhi died in 716 B.C., his son Shabaka took control of the lands and declared himself a pharaoh hence, creating the twenty-fifth Kushite Dynasty in Egypt.

Shabaka revived some earlier Egyptian cultural practices that had faded during Egypt’s period of weakness. For instance, Shabaka was buried in an Egyptian-style pyramid despite the fact that the Egyptians had stopped building pyramids centuries earlier. He also preserved Egyptian writing, restored old temples, and built new temples to Egyptian gods.


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Comparative Timelines of Egypt & Kush - History

The term "Ethiopia" was first used by Ancient Greek writers in reference to the east-central African kingdom that they believed to be not only culturally and ethnically linked to ancient "Egypt" (Kemet), but the source of such civilization as well. Contrary to popular belief, the term was not exclusive to the landlocked modern country of Ethiopia. According to early Greek writers, Ethiopia was an empire originally situated between Ta-Seti in Lower Kemet and the confluence of the White and Blue Niles. Centuries later, however, the name became synonymous with a much larger region that included the present-day countries of South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Central African Republic, Chad, etc.

Ethiopia is the English transliteration of the Greek word "&Alpha&iota&theta&iota&omicron&pi&alpha" (or Aithiopia) which originates from the Greek word "&Alpha&iota&theta&iota&omicron&psi" or "aithiops" which literally means "charred or burnt." "Aithiops" is in fact composed of "&alpha&iota&theta&iota&omega" (meaning "I burn") and "&omega&psi" (meaning face or complexion).

Prior to Greek history, Ethiopia was known as "Kush" by the ancient "Egyptians." The Buhen stela (housed in the Florence Museum), which dates from the reign of Sety I (1294-1279 BC), refers to this region as "Kas" and "Kash." Kush is also mentioned as "KSH" in other texts dated between 1550 - 1069 BC.

History of Early Ethiopia or Kush (13,000-7500 BC)

The region known as Kush has been inhabited for several millennia. Royal Ontario Museum and University of Khartoum researchers found a "tool workshop" south of Dongola, Sudan with thousands of paleolithic axes on rows of stones, dating back 70,000 years. As early as 13,000 BC, ceremonial burial practices were taking place at Jebel Sahaba and Wadi Halfa in the northern part of modern-day Sudan (known to archaeologists as the "Qadan" period, 13,000-8,000 BC). At the Toshka site in modern-day "Lower Nubia," archaeologists have uncovered tombs where domesticated wild cattle were placed above human remains, indicative of the use of cattle in a ceremonial fashion. Circular tomb walls with above-ground mounds are further evidence of the beginnings of ceremonial burials.

At other sites nearby, we can see the development of Ethiopian (better known as "Egyptian") civilization. At the Kadruka cemetery, spouted vessels were found, and the tombs at El Gaba were filled with jewelry, pottery, ostrich feathers, headrests, facial painting, etc.--all of which were present in "dynastic Egypt," and are still used today amongst different peoples of modern-day Ethiopia. The neolithic Sabu rock paintings even depict dynastic Egyptian-style boats.

Just west of the city of Kerma lies the site of Busharia, where shards of pottery dating from 8000 to 9000 BC have been found. A nearby discovery at El-Barga shed light on foundations of round buildings, graves and pottery shards from 7,500 BC.

Therefore Kushitic civilization began on the banks of the Nile over 15,000 years ago and was settled at least 55,000 years prior.

Furthermore, based on the traditions of the first settlers and the artifacts found in this region, Kushitic civilization gave birth to that of so-called "Egypt" (see also: Nile Valley Civilization).

Ethiopia in Hebrew History (1200 - 500 BC)

The Torah (Old Testament of the Bible) mentions Ethiopia in its first and oldest book, Genesis (chapter 2, c. 1400 BC), and puts Ethiopia in a geographical context:

"And a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia."

In the Hebrew book of Numbers (chapter 12, verse 1, c. 1200 BC), Moses, who was born and educated in Egypt, married an Ethiopian woman:

"And Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married: for he had married an Ethiopian woman."

By the 740s BC, the Hebrew prophet Nahum said, "Cush and Ethiopia were her [Nineveh's] boundless strength, and it was infinite Put and Lubim were thy helpers" (chapter 3, verse 9).

Emperor Taharqa, one of the most famous Kushite leaders who ruled Egypt and beyond (photo courtesy of David Liam Moran)

Ethiopia's King Taharqa, who also ruled Egypt (690-664 BC, 25th dynasty), is mentioned in Hebrew texts as having saved Jerusalem from Assyrian destruction (Isaiah, chapter 37, verse 10-11, c. 687 BC):

And when he heard say of Tirha'kah [Taharqa] king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezeki'ah, saying, Thus shall ye speak to Hezeki'ah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria."

Ethiopia in Greek History (800 BC-200 AD).

Few other nations are mentioned in ancient European literature as much as Ethiopia, and even fewer as highly esteemed. Ethiopians are first mentioned in the oldest of Greek texts, Homer's Iliad (circa 800 BC), as a place frequented by the Greek gods. Homer states, ". twelve for Jupiter's stay with the Ethiopians, at whose return Thetis prefers her petition" and "Zeus is at Ocean's river with Ethiopians, feasting, he and all the heaven-dwellers."

In Homer's Odyssey (c. 800 BC), Poseiden also spends time in Ethiopia: "But Poseidon, the earthquake lord, making his return from Ethiopia where he had visited for a celebration in his honor. "

Homer also tells us that an Ethiopian ruled Troy and Arabia:

"Tithonus was the son of Laomedon, king of Troy and the Nymph Strymo. He was an extremely handsome youth, and when Eos (Dawn) first saw him, she fell in love with him and brought him to her palace by the stream of Ocean in Ethiopia. They had two children, Memnon and Emathion. Emathion became a king of Arabia. Memnon took a force of Ethiopians to Troy and died while fighting the Greeks"

Herodotus (Histories, Book II, c. 440 BC) informs us that Ethiopians also jointly ruled over the Siwa Oasis:

"Ammonians [Siwa Owasis], who are a joint colony of Egyptians and Ethiopians, speaking a language between the two. "

Pyramids in Meroe, the capital of Ethiopia in Herodotus' time (photo courtesy of Petr Adam Dohnalek)

The so-called "father of (European) history," Herodotus (490-425 BC), spoke often on the subject of Ethiopia, and places it in geographical context:

"Beyond the island [Elephantine] is a great lake, and round its shores live nomadic tribes of Ethiopians. After crossing the lake one comes again to the stream of the Nile, which flows into it. After forty days journey on land along the river, one takes another boat and in twelve days reaches a big city named Meroe, said to be the capital city of the Ethiopians." and

". Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Ethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony. "

Herodotus describes their physical characteristics and provides great detail about the traditions of Ethiopians in his era, stating,

". and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else. The Ethiopians were clothed in the skins of leopards and lions, and had long bows made of the stem of the palm-leaf, not less than four cubits in length. On these they laid short arrows made of reed, and armed at the tip, not with iron, but with a piece of stone, sharpened to a point, of the kind used in engraving seals. They carried likewise spears, the head of which was the sharpened horn of an antelope and in addition they had knotted clubs. When they went into battle they painted their bodies, half with chalk, and half with vermilion. and

"The inhabitants worship Zeus and Dionysus alone of the Gods, holding them in great honor. Among these Ethiopians copper is of all metals the most scarce and valuable. Also, last of all, they were allowed to behold the coffins of the Ethiopians, which are made (according to report) of crystal, after the following fashion: When the dead body has been dried, either in the Egyptian, or in some other manner, they cover the whole with gypsum, and adorn it with painting until it is as like the living man as possible. Then they place the body in a crystal pillar which has been hollowed out to receive it, crystal being dug up in great abundance in their country, and of a kind very easy to work. You may see the corpse through the pillar within which it lies and it neither gives out any unpleasant odor, nor is it in any respect unseemly yet there is no part that is not as plainly visible as if the body were bare. The next of kin keep the crystal pillar in their houses for a full year from the time of the death, and give it the first fruits continually, and honor it with sacrifice. After the year is out they bear the pillar forth, and set it up near the town. "

Herodotus informs us that he is aware of the cultural similarities between the ancient Ethiopians and the ancient Egyptians:

"For the people of Colchis are evidently Egyptian, and this I perceived for myself before I heard it from others. So when I had come to consider the matter I asked them both and the Colchians had remembrance of the Egyptians more than the Egyptians of the Colchians but the Egyptians said they believed that the Colchians were a portion of the army of Sesostris. That this was so I conjectured myself not only because they have black skins and curly hair (this of itself amounts to nothing, for there are other races which are so), but also still more because the Colchians, Egyptians, and Ethiopians alone of all the races of men have practised circumcision from the first. The Phenicians and the Syrians who dwell in Palestine confess themselves that they have learnt it from the Egyptians, and the Syrians about the river Thermodon and the river Parthenios, and the Macronians, who are their neighbours, say that they have learnt it lately from the Colchians. These are the only races of men who practise circumcision, and these evidently practise it in the same manner as the Egyptians.

Diodorus Siculus (60 BC), however, tells us that Ethiopia is the origin of Egyptian traditions and civilization (consistent with modern archaeological discoveries) and that Ethiopians colonized as far as India:

"Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men and the proofs of this statement, they say, are manifest. For they did not come into their land as immigrants from abroad but were natives of it"

"We must now speak about the Ethiopian writing which is called hieroglyphic among the Egyptians, in order that we may omit nothing in our discussion of their antiquities. "

"They [the Ethiopians] say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris ["King of Kings and God of Gods"] having been the leader of the colony . . . they add that the Egyptians have received from them, as from authors and their ancestors, the greater part of their laws."

"Osiris being come to the borders of Ethiopia, raised high banks on either side of the river, lest, in the time of its inundation it should overflow the country more than was convenient make it marish and boggy and made flood-gates to let in the water by degrees, as far as was necessary. Thence he passed through Arabia, bordering upon the Red sea as far as to India, and the utmost coasts that were inhabited he built likewise many cities in India, one of which he called Nysa, willing to have a remembrance of that in Egypt where he was brought up. he planted ivy, which grows and remains here only of all other places in India. "

Like Herodotus, Siculus described Ethiopians as Black and their empire as vast, from central and East Africa to the Arabian penninsula. However, by Siculus' time, the capital had moved away from Meroe to the East where Ethiopians mined gold. This was the same time period in which the ancient Aksum leaders thrived:

"But there are also a great many other tribes of the Ethiopians, some of them dwelling in the land lying on both banks of the Nile and on the islands in the river, others inhabiting the neighbouring country of Arabia, and still others residing in the interior of Libya [the Greek term for interior Africa west of the Nile]. The majority of them, and especially those who dwell along the river, are black in colour and have flat noses and woolly hair. we feel that it is appropriate first to tell of the working of the gold as it is carried on in these regions. At the extremity of Egypt and in the contiguous territory of both Arabia and Ethiopia there lies a region which contains many large gold mines, where the gold is secured in great quantities."

Strabo (63 - 24 AD) provides even further detail on the extent of the Ethiopian empire, which included not just Arabia, but Europe as well:

"However, Sesostris, the Egyptian, he adds, and Tearco [Taharqa] the Aethiopian advanced as far as Europe and Nabocodrosor, who enjoyed greater repute among the Chaldaeans [in modern day Iraq] than Heracles, led an army even as far as the Pillars [Gibraltar]. Thus far, he says, also Tearco went. "

Ethiopia in Roman History (1 - 200 AD)

Later the term "Ethiopia" would become synonymous not just with the Kushites, but all Africans. Unlike the earlier Greek writers who distinguished Ethiopians from other Africans, Claudius Ptolemy (90 - 168 AD), a Roman citizen who lived in Alexandria, used "Ethiopia" as a racial term. In his Tetrabiblos: Or Quadripartite, he tried to explain the physical characteristics of people around the world saying, "They are consequently black in complexion, and have thick and curled hair. and they are called by the common name of Aethiopians."

Ethiopia in Byzantine History (c 700 AD)

Stephanus of Byzantium (circa 700 AD) wrote, "Ethiopia was the first established country on earth and the Ethiopians were the first to set up the worship of the gods and to establish laws."


Watch the video: Who Were The Black Pharaohs Of Kush? Mystery Of The African Pharaohs. Odyssey (July 2022).


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