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Lockheed Hudson Mk.I

Lockheed Hudson Mk.I


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Lockheed Hudson Mk.I

The Lockheed Hudson Mk.I was one of a number of American military aircraft developed and produced to satisfy overseas orders, in this case from the RAF. Work on the Hudson began in April 1938, after the British Purchasing Commission in America realised that Lockheed’s proposed navigational trainer would actually be significantly superior to the Avro Anson, itself then only just coming into service.

The Hudson was very closed related to the Lockheed Model 14 airliner, and would have the exact same width and length as the earlier aircraft. The main changes made to the design were the installation of a glass nose to contain the navigator and of a bomb bay capable of carrying 1,400lb of bombs or depth charges internally and provision for a Boulton-Paul two gun dorsal turret.

The main flaw with the Hudson I, as with many pre-war bombers, was its inadequate defensive firepower. It was armed with four .303in machine guns, two fixed guns in the upper nose, fired by the pilot, and two guns in a Boulton-Paul dorsal turret.

The resulting aircraft was a great improvement over the Anson, which had a top speed of 188mph, a range of 790 miles and a 360lb bomb load. In comparison the Hudson Mk.I had a top speed of 246mph and a range of 1,960 miles, well over double that of the earlier aircraft. The longer range was particularly important to Coastal Command, the intended operator of the Hudson, allowing it to spend much longer patrolling over the ocean (the Hudson I also compares well with the Bristol Blenheim, a similar two-engined aircraft – although the Blenheim was faster, it had a shorter range and carried a smaller bomb load).

A total of 350 Hudson Mk.Is were ordered in three batches. The initial order, placed on 23 June 1938, was for 200 aircraft. Work was proceeding so well that in the autumn of 1939 Lockheed offered to complete another 50 aircraft by Christmas. This batch of 50 aircraft was completed seven and a half weeks ahead of schedule, and was followed by a third batch of 100 Hudson Mk.Is. The majority of these aircraft went to the RAF, although South Africa was given two and the RCAF received 28. Lockheed had to produce one extra aircraft after N7260 was written off before delivery. By the time the war started two Coastal Command squadrons were already equipped with the Hudson I.

Crew: 5
Engines: Wright GR1820-G102A
Horsepower: 1,100hp at take-off, 900hp at 6,700ft
Wing span: 65ft 6in
Length: 44ft 4in
Empty Weight: 11,630lb
Gross Weight: 17,500lb
Max Speed: 246mph at 6,500ft
Cruising Speed: 220mph or 170mph*
Climb rate: 2,180ft/min or 1,200ft/min*
Ceiling: 25,000ft
Range: 1,960 miles
Armament: Four 0.303in machine guns, two fixed guns in upper nose and two in a Boulton-Paul dorsal turret
Payload: 1,400lb in internal bomb bay under cabin

* Different sources disagree on these statistics.

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LOCKHEED HUDSON

Designed by Clarence Johnson, the Lockheed Hudson was developed in 1938 from the Super Electra commercial airliner in response to a British request for a maritime patrol aircraft to support the Avro Anson. An initial order for 200 machines was placed in quick time and the aircraft entered service with No 224 Squadron RAF in May 1939. By the outbreak of war, some 78 Mk 1s had been delivered.

The Hudson Mk I and Mk II aircraft were powered by Wright Cyclone 9-cylinder radial engines of 1,100 hp and armed with two fixed Browning .303 in machine guns in the nose with a further two similar guns mounted in a Boulton Paul dorsal turret. A 1,400 lb bomb load could be carried in an internal weapons bay. The Hudson Mk III was equipped with up-rated engines and the addition of one ventral and two beam mounted machine guns. As the war gathered pace, several more variants were produced and, in time, the Hudson found favour with the air arms of several other nations, in particular Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States.

The aircraft achieved a number of ‘firsts’ during the early stages of conflict. On 8th October 1939, a Hudson Mk I became the first RAF aircraft to shoot down a German aircraft when it destroyed a Dornier Do-18 off Jutland, and it was a Hudson Mk III of No 220 Squadron that guided a Royal Navy destroyer, HMS Cossack, to the Altmark prison ship in Norwegian waters, thereby freeing many British sailors. RAF Hudsons accounted for over two dozen successes against U-boats and a variant operated by the US Navy was the first US aircraft to destroy a U-boat when it sank U-656 off the coast of Newfoundland on 31st July 1942. It was also used as a bomber, some 35 machines taking part in the RAF’s second “thousand bomber” raid.

A total of 2,584 Hudsons were built. There are no known airworthy survivors, but several aircraft are on display at museums in Australia, Canada and New Zealand and a fine example can be seen at the RAF Museum, Hendon.

Hudsons were employed by the RAF Special Duties squadrons alongside Lysanders for the delivery and extraction of agents from France and occasionally used RAF Tangmere as a forward operating base during the period 1942-44.


Lockheed Hudson

The National Air Force Museum of Canada (NAFMC), in association with the Atlantic Canada Aviation Museum (ACAM) in Halifax, and with the assistance and generosity of the Reynolds Museum Ltd., is restoring a 1942 Mark VI Lockheed Hudson, Serial Number FK466.

The NAFMC started work on this demanding project in October 2010. When restored, FK466 will represent a significant aircraft in the history of Canada’s Air Force and it will be the only Mark VI Hudson on display in the world. FK466 is not a complete aircraft, as it was cut up upon disposal from “War Assets” after WWII, and it requires numerous items including interior furnishings, cockpit instruments and engines. In addition, finding manufacturer’s drawings and blueprints is another priority for the Restoration Workshop team. Restoration time for FK466 is estimated at five to ten years to complete.

Restoration of the Hudson is on hold, waiting for Pratt & Whitney 1830-69 radial engine mounts and cockpit instruments.

General History of the Lockheed Hudson

The Lockheed Hudson was an American-built light bomber and coastal reconnaissance aircraft built initially for the Royal Air Force (RAF) shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War and primarily operated by the RAF thereafter. The Hudson served throughout the war, mainly with Coastal Command, but also in transport and training roles, as well as delivering agents into occupied France. They were also used extensively with the Royal Canadian Air Force’s (RCAF) anti-submarine squadrons.

In late 1937 Lockheed sent a cutaway drawing of the Model 14 Super Electra to various publications showing the new aircraft as a civilian aircraft and converted to a light bomber. This attracted the interest of various air forces and in 1938 the British Purchasing Commission sought an American maritime patrol aircraft for the United Kingdom to support the Avro Anson. On 10 December 1938, Lockheed demonstrated a modified version of the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra commercial airliner, which swiftly went into production as the Hudson Mk I.

By February 1939, RAF Hudsons began to be delivered to No. 224 Squadron RAF at RAF Leuchars, Scotland. By the start of the war in September, 78 Hudsons were in service. Due to the United States then-neutrality, early series aircraft were flown to the Canadian border, landed, and then towed on their wheels over the border into Canada by tractors or horse-drawn teams, before then being flown to RCAF airfields where they were then dismantled and “cocooned” for transport as deck cargo, by ship to Liverpool.

Although later outclassed by larger bombers, such as the Halifax and the Lancaster, the Hudson achieved some significant feats during the first half of the war. On 8 October 1939, over Jutland, a Hudson became the first RAF aircraft to shoot down a German aircraft. They also operated as fighters during the Battle of Dunkirk. A Hudson of RCAF Bomber Reconnaissance Squadron 113 became the first aircraft of the RCAF’s Eastern Air Command to sink a submarine, when Hudson 625 sank U-754 on 31 July 1942.

In all, a total of 2,584 Hudsons were built. They began to be withdrawn from front-line service in 1944. Some Hudsons were converted to civil transports after the war, and the Hudson formed the basis for the development of the Lockheed Ventura.

The only currently active RCAF Squadrons to fly the Hudson during WWII are 407 Squadron, now based in Comox B.C. and 412 Squadron, now based in Ottawa.

History of Lockheed Hudson Mark VI – FK466

Thus far, we have been able to determine the following information about this particular historic aircraft:

It is a Lockheed Hudson Mk. VI, with Royal Air Force (RAF) Serial Number FK466, and it was built at Burbank, California, in September 1942. It was a Lend-Lease aircraft, and it was part of one of the last batches of Lend-Lease Hudsons. The Hudson was equivalent to the USAAF Model A-28A.

The A-28A was a contract designation given to 450 Lockheed Hudson twin-engine attack aircraft intended for delivery to British Commonwealth countries under Lend-Lease agreements. The A-28A (Mk. VI) was essentially an improved version of the earlier A-28. One significant difference between the A-28 and A-28A was the upgrade to the Pratt & Whitney 1830-69 radial engine, a more powerful version with 1,200 hp each at maximum takeoff power.

Most A-28As were sent to Great Britain and served in the RAF in various missions. Some also served with the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) and Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF). A few aircraft were retained by the USAAF for use as staff transports.

FK466 was ferried from Burbank, California, to Eastern Air Command at RCAF Station Debert, Nova Scotia, on October 5, 1942. It was first assigned to No. 31 (RAF) Operational Training Unit (OTU) at RCAF Station Debert, a formation of the BCATP. While at No. 31 (RAF) OTU, FK466 was used to train crews to ferry Hudsons to England and for the Maritime Patrol role.

On August 8, 1944, FK466 was then transferred from the BCATP to the War Materials Office as “War Reserve,” at No. 21 Repair Depot, Moncton, New Brunswick, pending modification to Air Sea Rescue (ASR) configuration.

As part of the ASR conversion, FK466 was equipped with an Uffa Fox, Mk. I, Airborne Lifeboat. These boats, which were mounted under the aircraft’s fuselage, were equipped with two gas engines, one sail and emergency rations.

FK466 was then transferred back to Eastern Air Command on December 12, 1944, after conversion

to the ASR role. FK466 was now attached to No. 1 (Composite) Squadron based at RCAF Station Torbay, Newfoundland. No. 1 Composite Squadron had been formed to provide target towing, search and rescue, and communications duties as part of Eastern Air Command. No. 1 Composite Squadron’s diary indicates that on April 17, 1945, Flying Officer (F/O) McKay dropped a dummy lifeboat from FK466 over Quidi Vidi Lake, near St. John’s, Newfoundland.

The Air Sea Rescue element of the squadron, which included FK466 and other aircraft and personnel, was transferred to the control of RCAF Station Torbay, when No. 1 Composite Squadron was disbanded on July 7, 1945. The Air Sea Rescue Flight operated for about two months using Hudsons FK466 and FK495.

The lifeboat system was utilized on July 6, 1945, when an Airborne Lifeboat was lowered to the crew of a B-24D Liberator from RCAF #10 Squadron, Tail Number 595, which had ditched in the Atlantic off Newfoundland, after experiencing flight control problems. Whether FK466 or FK 495 carried out the lifeboat drop is currently unclear, but we are working on that mystery.

FK466 was flown to No. 1 Reconnaissance and Navigation School at Summerside, Prince Edward Island, by the Officer Commanding (OC) of the Air Sea Rescue Flight, Pilot Officer George Webster, after the disbandment of the Air Sea Rescue Flight, on September 15, 1945. (An interesting note is that Mr. Webster is now one of the restoration volunteers working on FK466.)

No. 1 Reconnaissance and Navigation School was moved to RCAF Station Greenwood, Nova Scotia on December 15, 1945. FK466 was utilized by “Station Flight” at RCAF Station Greenwood for general transport duties until September 9, 1947, when it was placed on Aircraft Pending Disposal At Location (APDAL) at RCAF Station Greenwood, and then transferred to War Assets on November 10, 1947.

FK466 was purchased from War Assets, along with a number of B-24’s and other Hudson’s, by Mr. Pat “Airplane” Murphy, who was in the scrap metal business in Berwick, Nova Scotia. He cut off the wings in order to make transporting the aircraft easier, and then cut off the nose section to make storage easier in his scrap yard. Over the years, various parts and pieces from all of these aircraft were sold as scrap metal or for use by area locals. Mr. Laurie Layton, of L.W. Layton Salvage, in Canning, Nova Scotia purchased FK466 from Mr. Murphy in 1980 for $175. It remained at L.W. Layton Salvage as a dismantled hulk from 1980 to 1988. FK466 was subsequently found and acquired by ACAM members and transported to Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1988, where it has remained until October 2010, when it was moved into the restoration shop at the NAFMC.

Restoration of Lockheed Hudson Mark VI – FK466

The contribution of our dedicated volunteers in the restoration and preservation of our aircraft cannot be overstated. Our volunteers come from all walks of life and most are retired from their previous careers. We are also very fortunate to have a volunteer who was not only a Hudson pilot during the WWII, but he also flew this very aircraft!


History [ edit | edit source ]

Based on the Lockheed 14 Super Electra developed Lockheed before the beginning of World War II a light bomber, in June 1938

A-28 of the USAAF in the WWII

by the Royal Air Force for Coastal Command was ordered. The first machine, known as the Hudson Mk I flew on 10 December 1938, the following summer, the machines assigned to the Coastal Command. In the following years, nearly 2000 machines of the series Mk I, Mk II and Mk III to the Royal Air Force were delivered.

A Hudson was also the first aircraft of the United States Air Force, the World War II a German plane shot down - on 8 October 1939 on Jutland a Dornier Do 18. Hudson was also on the attack Altmark and in the seizure of the German U-boat U 570 involved. By a British Hudson was in May 1943 the first German U-boat Ballistic missiles sunk.


The unit originally started out life as the RAF Coastal Command Landplane Pilots Pool based at RAF Silloth in Cumbria training crews for landplanes flying Avro Ansons, Lockheed Hudsons, Bristol Blenheims and Bristol Beauforts. However, during April 1940 the unit was renamed to No. 1 (Coastal) Operational Training Unit and before long with the creation of more OTU's the unit started to specialise in training Hudson crews. [1] [4]

On 23 March 1943 the unit moved to RAF Thornaby [1] before disbanding during October 1943. [2]

    as RAF Coastal Command Group from November 1939 and No. 1 (Coastal) OTU from April 1940. [1] from 23 March 1943 until October 1943. [2]

During September 1942 a Lockheed Hudson Mk.I N7325 of the unit crashed on Cross Fell in the Peak District. [5]


Lockheed Hudson

One of the few combat aircraft to have been developed from a civil transport, the Lockheed Hudson maritime patrol bomber (and navigator trainer) owes its basic design to the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra of the late 1930s. The Hudson was a smooth handling and popular aircraft which never quite had the performance needed in warfare. Nevertheless, it made a fine contribution to the Allies' war effort.

Based on the Super Electra civil transport, the Hudson was the first American-built aircraft to fly with Royal Air Force during World War II. The airframe was instantly recognisable as a modified Electra, with more powerful engines, gun armament and internal bomb-bay. This bomber was rushed into production to meet Britain's requirement for a maritime patrol aircraft and navigation trainer. Search and rescue Hudsons were also built, with a lifeboat stored under the fuselage.

After its early success in British use, the Hudson was employed by the US Army Air Forces in A-28 and A-29 attack variants and as the AT-18 advanced trainer. The US Navy adopted the Hudson as a patrol bomber and called it the PBO.

US Navy Hudsons sank two U-boats on 15 March 1942. This was the first of several such successes in combat. An A-29 sank the German submarine U-701 on 7 July 1942.

Hudsons were used by many Allied air forces, including the Soviet Union and South Africa. The aircraft continued to serve faithfully in support roles up unitl the end of the war.


Lockheed Hudson

The design of the Lockheed Hudson refers to the Lockheed 10 Electra originating from 1934.
This aircraft, of which almost 150 examples were built, was the first of a series twin engined aircraft designed by the C. “Kelly” Johnson team.
The Lockheed 12 Electra Junior was a somewhat downsized version of which 144 examples were built plus another 16 examples of the Lockheed 212, a bomber / trainer for the NEIAF.
Soon the larger Lockheed 14 Super Electra for 12 passengers was was released. This type had more powerful engines, wings with Fowler flaps and the wings were designed for high speed. It made its first flight on July 29, 1937.
Because it was smaller than its opponent the Douglas DC-3, just 122 examples were built.
In February 1938 Lockheed was visited by the BPC (British Purchasing Commission) looking for a replacement of their ageing AVRO Anson. The design team, which had already been thinking about a bomber version of the Lockheed 14, built a mock-up of the B-14L. Initially it had a nose and a dorsal turret. Because the British wanted the navigator / bomber in a clear vision glazed nose, the nose turret was abandoned an replace by a glazed nose section.
As the British were already impressed by the performance of the Lockheed 14 and because the Lockheed B-14L design was cheaper and could be delivered earlier than other designs, 200 examples were ordered, to be delivered before December 1939, plus an additional 50 examples which could be delivered later. Lockheed succeeded to deliver all 250 aircraft before December 31, 1939.
The first production Hudson, RAF serial N7205 made its first flight on December 10, 1938. Little problems occurred and it was sent to A&AEE at Boscombe Down for testing. The second aircraft serial N7206 went to Boulton Paul, for installation and testing the dorsal turret.
The Lockheed Model B-14L Hudson I was about 100 km/hr faster and could carry four times as much bomb load as the AVRO Anson at a range of about 3150 km, being almost double the range of the Anson. The Anson was, after being replaced by the Hudson, mainly used for training purposes.
The Hudson was an all metal aircraft with the well-known Fowler flaps shortening the landing and start. The crew consisted usually of a pilot, a navigator, a bombardier, a wireless operator and an air gunner.
The armament consisted of four .303 inch machine guns, two in the nose and two in the dorsal turret and a bomb load of 600 kg (1400 lb).
Production ended in May 1943. Oner 2900 examples were built.


The Hudson became the first American built aircraft to shoot down an opposing enemy aircraft. This happened on October 8, 1939. A Hudson Mk I shot down a Dornier Do-18D.[i] Two Hudsons shot down another Do-18 on November 10.[ii] In December a Hudson spotted the German merchant ship Altmark. The Altmark was carrying 300 prisoners captured by the German pocket battleship Graf Spee. A destroyer flotilla hunted down the Altmark and a boarding party from the HMS Cossack liberated the prisoners in Norwegian waters.[iii]

On June 1, 1940 RAF No. 220 Squadron claimed 3 Ju 87s shot down. On the 3 rd No.206 Squadron claimed 3 Bf 109s shot down. RAF Squadron No.269 launched an attack on the battleship Scharnhorst on June 11. The German defenses shot down 2 Hudsons. On the 19 th Hudsons evacuated Polish General Sikorski and his staff from Bordeaux.[iv]

Hudsons began anti-submarine missions in August 1940. Their first U-boat success was on August 27, 1941. It bombed and damaged the U-570. The U-boat crew surrendered.[v] On March 1, 1942 a PBO-1 Hudson, piloted by Ensign William Tepuni, sank the U-656. It was the first U-boat sunk by U.S. forces.[vi] A PBO-1 Hudson, piloted by CPO Donald F. Mason, sank the U-502 on March 15. It was the second U-boat sunk by U.S. forces.[vii] On May 1 an RAF Hudson severely damaged the U-573, killing one crew member. The Hudson pilot, Sgt. Brent, saw some U-Boat sailors on the bridge with their hands raised in surrender. Sgt. Brent felt strafing the ship was unjustified. Coastal Command’s assessment was the Hudson should have strafed the U-boat crew since there were no surface vessels available to accept the surrender. The U-573 made it to Spain where it was interned and sold to Spain on August 2.[viii] On July 31 a Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) Hudson, Number 625, sank the U-754. This Hudson was the first RCAF Eastern Air Command aircraft to sink a submarine.[ix] All 43 crew members of the U-754 died.[x] Hudsons sank 20 U-boats and shared in the sinking of 4 other U-boats. The last Hudson U-boat success was on October 5, 1943. A Hudson sank the U-336 all 50 on board the U-336 died.[xi]

Hudsons also took part in the attempt to stop the German ships in the 𠇌hannel Dash”, February 1942. Three Hudsons were lost in two unsuccessful attacks.[xii] On the night of June 25/26 35 Hudsons took part in a 1,123 aircraft effort against German targets. RAF losses for the night were 55 aircraft. RAF Coastal Command lost 5 of the 102 aircraft taking part.[xiii]

Hudsons flew reconnaissance missions over Germany when there was low cloud cover. These Hudsons had a camouflage scheme for such missions. Hudsons also flew agents and supplies into occupied Europe.


MPM 1/72 Hudson Mk.I/II Kit First Look

The Hudson started life as the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra and was designed to compete in the civil aviation world against the new series of Douglas DC-X aircraft. The Model 14 was designed to operate with a variety of powerplants including the Wright Cyclone, Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp and the Pratt & Whitney Hornet. The prototype Model 14 first flew in July 1937, powered by the Pratt & Whitney Hornet.

As war was approaching in Europe, the RAF sought out aircraft that it could press into service almost immediately. The Model 14 was adopted with some modifications as the Hudson, first flying in December 1938. Thousands of Hudsons were produced between 1939 and 1943, with examples delivered to Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the Netherlands, China and the United States.

There were a number of variants of the Hudson. In British and allied service, there were the Marks I - V which were designed as patrol bombers and reconnaissance aircraft. All were equipped with a Boulton Paul dorsal turret and differed primarily in engine and propeller combinations. The Mark VI was designed as a transport version of the Hudson with the dorsal turret deleted.

In US operations, the Mark IIIA version (which was a Mark III with bench seats installed) served as the A-29 by the USAAF and as the PBO-1 by the USN. A transport version was also designated as the C-63. The Mk.VI transport version was also adopted as the A-28.

Two unique versions of the Hudson were also produced for the USAAF: the AT-18, which had a Martin dorsal turret in place of the Boulton Paul, which served as a aerial gunnery trainer and the AT-18A, which had a US-styled bombardiers nose with the Norden bombsight installed for bombardier training.

Among the most notable historical tid-bits in the Hudson's operational history, it has the distinction of being the first US-built aircraft to achieve an aerial victory in WW2. Another incident involved a RAAF Hudson that was discovered by a flight of six A6M2 Zeros, one of which was flown by ace Saburo Sakai. While the Hudson was eventually shot down, the aggressive dogfight put up by the Hudson pilot amazed even veteran Sakai.

One of the more fun build projects I have done was the Classic Airframes 1/48 scale Hudson. When this MPM kit was released, I wondered how the kit would stack up against the Classic Airframes release. When this kit arrived from Hobbyshop.cz, I had the opportunity to discover first-hand.

The kit is molded in light gray styrene and presented on five parts trees, plus a single tree of clear parts. It is clear from the smaller trees as will as the third large tree that this won't be the only version of the Hudson to be released in this scale.

Out of the box, the kit has all of the parts to render the Hudson Mk.I or Mk.II variants. The extra engines on tree three and the solid nose tell of the future versions to come.

Construction begins in the cockpit (of course) and there is lots of detail in here. Now that I've seen this layout, I now know what I need to do to render a more accurate interior for the Classic Airframes kit. The cockpit is standard single-pilot configuration with a jump seat for the bombardier/navigator so sit in when not up in the glass nose. Behind the pilot is the radio operator's position and a full rack of radio gear.

Unlike the Classic kit, this one has a detailed main cabin interior and the option for an open main cabin door. Most of the other details in this kit are similar to the Classic kit with one exception - the elevator is properly portrayed as a one-piece near-full-span surface.

The kit cones with markings for three examples:

  • Hudson Mk.I, T9277, QX-W, 224 Sqn, Coastal Command, 1940
  • Hudson Mk.I, N7288, NO-U, 320 Sqn, Coastal Command, 1940
  • Hudson Mk.I, P5143, VX-M, 206 Sqn, Coastal Command, 1940

I like how the tail fin flashes are done - note that the hard-to-mask de-icing boots are provided in decal form as part of the fin flash. Nice job!

I wish MPM had scaled this one up to 1/48, but as I recall, I have another Classic Hudson stashed away for a rainy day. I sense some rain clouds coming now that I have a good three-dimensional reference to detail out the interior of the Classic Airframes kit. Heck, I might just build this in 1/72 scale too! In any case, this will look good on your scale flightline!


Sisällysluettelo

Tausta Muokkaa

Adolf Hitlerin oletettu vuoden 1934 diktatuuripyrkimys lisäsi poliittista jännitystä Euroopassa, ja johti Britannian hallituksen suunnittelemaan ilmavoimiensa vahvistamista. Osana suunnitelmaa oli uusien konetyyppien käyttöönotto, kuten 174 Avro Anson I -koneen tilaus. Koneista ensimmäinen luovutettiin 48. laivueelle 6. maaliskuuta 1936. [2]

Lockheed oli aloittanut Britannian hallituksen toimien innoittamana yrityksen rahoittamana uuden merivalvontakoneen suunnittelun, mikä johti puisen mock-up-mallin rakentamiseen. B14-koneen malli ja suunnitelmat esiteltiin Britannian hankintakomissiolle (engl. British Purchasing Commission ) huhtikuussa 1938. Siipirakenne, pyrstö ja moottorit oli kopioitu Lockheed 14-WF62 Super Electra -koneesta. Runko oli uudelleensuunniteltu, ja sen keulaan ja peräosaan oli sijoitettu konekivääritornit. Kone varustettiin lisäksi pommikuilulla ja suunnistajalle rakennettiin tilat siipien tasalle. Muutokset vastasivat perinteisen pommikoneen tarpeita, mutta Britannian ilmavoimien vaatimukset valvontakoneelle eivät täyttyneet. Suunnistaja piti sijoittaa lasitettuun keulaan lähemmäs lentäjää. [3]

Kilpaileviin Boeing B-17- ja Douglas B-18 -suunnitelmiin verrattuna kone oli edullinen ja sitä voitiin toimittaa nopeasti suurehkoja määriä. Kolmatta ehdokasta Consolidated 28 Catalinaa ei pidetty lentoveneenä sopivana tarkoitukseen. Britannialla oli toisaalta kokemusta konemalline pohjana olevasta Lockheedin matkustajalentokoneesta, sillä British Airwaysilla oli ollut runsaan vuoden käytössä Lockheed Model 10 Electra ja -12 Electra Junior -koneita ja Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra -koneita oli vastikään tilattu. [4]

Kaksi kuukautta kestäneisiin neuvotteluihin osallistuivat Lontoossa Lockheedin Courtland Gross, Kelly Jonhson, Carl Squier, Richard von Hake ja Robert Proctor. Toisena osapuolena olivat Britannian ilmailuministeriön virkamiehet. Neuvottelujen tuloksena konekivääritorneiksi vaihdettiin Boulton Paulin valmistamat kahdella .303" konekiväärillä varustetut tornit, ja keulaan lisättiin kaksi kiinteää konekivääriä. Voimanlaitteina olleet 900 hevosvoiman GR-1820-F62-moottorit vaihdettiin tehokkaampiin 1 100 hevosvoiman GR-1820-G102A-moottoreihin. Teknisistä vaatimuksista saavutetun sopimuksen jälkeen neuvottelut keskittyivät taloudellisiin yksityiskohtiin. Sopimus 25 miljoonan dollarin konehankinnasta allekirjoitettiin 23. kesäkuuta 1938. Sen mukaan Lockheed toimittaisi vähintään 200 Lockheed B14L -konetta 17 000 punnan kappalehintaan ja niin monta konetta lisää kuin mahdollista joulukuun loppuun 1939 mennessä, mutta kuitenkin enintään 250 kappaletta. [4]

Ensimmäinen aseistamaton B14L sai Britannian ilmavoimilta tyyppinimen Hudson Mk.I. [1] Kaupalliseen koneeseen perustunut sarjanumero N7205 aloitti lentokokeet Burbankissa 10. joulukuuta 1938 ja läpäisi niihin kuuluneet hyväksyntätestit nopeasti. Samoihin aikoihin julkistettiin Australian hallituksen tilaus 50 Lockheed B14S -koneesta, joiden moottoreina olisi Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp. [4]

Hudsonien luovutus Britannian ilmavoimille alkoi 15. helmikuuta 1939 ja ensimmäiset 48 konetta luovutettiin kesäkuuhun mennessä. Lockheed kiirehti rakentamista ja sai viimeisen 250 koneesta valmiiksi seitsemän ja puoli viikkoa ennen asetettua määräaikaa. [4]

Hudsoneita valmistettiin lopulta joulukuusta 1938 toukokuuhun 1943 kaikkiaan 2 941 kappaletta Burbankissa. Britannia tilasi koneista 1 338 suoraan tehtaalta ja 1 302 valmistui lend-lease-sopimusten nojalla. Näiden lisäksi 300 AT-18/AT-18A-konetta valmistui Yhdysvaltain maavoimien lentojoukoille ja yksi B14S Sperrylle. [4]

Hudson Mk.I Muokkaa

Parannelluilla potkureilla varustettuja Hudson Mk.I ja Mk.II -malleja toimitettiin kaikkiaan 351 kappaletta. Koneiden aseistuksena oli nokassa kaksi kiinteää Browning-konekivääriä ja kaksi konekivääriä Boulton Paulin toimittamassa tornissa. Hudson Mk.III -mallia valmistettiin 428 kappaletta. Sen aseistusta oli kasvatettu kolmella konekiväärillä, ja voimalaitteiksi oli vaihdettu tehokkaammat 1 200 hevosvoiman moottorit aiempien 1 100 hevosvoiman Wright Cyclone -moottorien tilalle. [1]

Hudson Mk.II Muokkaa

Hudson Mk.II poikkesi edeltäneestä Mk.I:stä vakionopeuspotkureilla. Mk.II -koneista 20 (T9366–T9385) valmistettiin Model 414:n vahvistettuja runkoelementtejä käyttäen. Viimeistä lukuun ottamatta alun perin Kanadan ilmavoimille suunnitellut koneet luovutettiin Britannian ilmavoimille. T9367 oli BOAC:n käytössä, vaikka se käyttikin ilmavoimien tunnuksia. Australian ilmavoimien Mk.II-koneet luokiteltiin myöhemmin Mk.IV:ksi. [5]

Hudson Mk.III ja Mk.IIIA Muokkaa

Hudson Mk.IV eli Australian ilmavoimien Mk.I ja Mk.II Muokkaa

Australia valitsi tilattuihin 50 koneeseensa Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp SC3-G moottorit, sillä Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation oli hankkinut Twin Waspin kanssa pitkälti yhteensopivan Pratt & Whitney Wasp S1H-1G -moottorin valmistuslisenssin. Twin Waspien koneteho oli 1 050 hevosvoimaa lentoonlähdössä ja 900 hevosvoimaa noin 3 600 metrin korkeudessa. Australian tilaamat viisikymmentä konetta saivat tunnukset A.16-1 – A.16-50, ja ne laivattiin Melbourneen 9. helmikuuta 1940 ilman konekivääritorneja. Lisäksi valmistettiin yksi B14S (c/n 1930), joka luovutettiin 28. helmikuuta Sperry Gyroscope Companylle. Aseistamaton kone sai tunnuksen NX21771 ja sitä käytettiin kehitettäessä laitteita lentokoneisiin. [6]

Australian ilmavoimat teki 50 koneen (A16.51 - A16.100) täydennystilauksen. [7]