History Podcasts

19 April 1942

19 April 1942


U.S. Fascists Aim Blows at Labor

From Labor Action, Vol. 6 No. 16, 19 April 1942, pp.ف &ك.
Transcribed & marked up by Einde O’ Callaghan for the Encyclopaedia of Trotskyism On-Line (ETOL).

In the last issue of Labor Action the reader saw how anti-Semitism is really a knife in labor’s back and how the approach to the war of the American Nazi-fascists is outright pro-Hitler boosting.

In this, the third article of our series on fascism in America, two more “strong” points of the vicious propaganda of these Hitler worshippers will be subjected to the test of working class interests.

There is no doubt at all that the fascist leaders in this country are openly and secretly schooling their followers for the same outburst of violence as characterized Hitler’s ascent to power. On a minor scale the destructive and murderous rampages of the Ku Klux Klan against innocent citizens is the model of the mob eruption the Nazi-fascists want.

In its milder forms, the appeal to violence can be found in such sentences as the following, profusely sprinkled throughout Nazi-fascist literature:

“The people of America will become Jew-conscious to a serious degree and much violence will result.”

This sounds like an “objective” statement. But coming from Kullgren, associate of Pelley and publisher of the fire-eating anti-Semitic Beacon Light, the meaning is very clear to his hysterical followers. To them it is a call for a pogrom against the Jews – which is what he intended it should be.

The suporters of America’s would-be fuehrers also get the full implication of such suggestive tracts as the following:

“There is grave danger of assassination [of President Roosevelt]. If the people fail to act I am satisfied that divinity will act . I prefer to paint the picture to show you the forces in operation and to leave the responsibility with you. . And you will reap as you have sown and the sins of omission are as deadly as those of commission.”

Thus does the same Kullgren, in a very “religious” mood, suggest to his followers that it is up to them to assassinate President Roosevelt – or else God will strike him down, and maybe them too, for not saving the Almighty this nasty job.

Open Appeal to Violence

Every normal person knows that only those whose minds and souls are hopelessly twisted and warped would honor such vile stuff with anything but contempt and loathing. But this is just the point. The leaders of American fascism gather around themselves the lowest elements, infuse them with unreasoning fanaticism and train them to carry out the bloody work of the fascist movement.

The private instructions issued to the chosen fanatics is much more rabid than the open propaganda. Below is a sample from a confidential memorandum addressed only to entrusted Crusader White Shirts by their leader, George W. Christians, dated January 1, 1942. This and similar secret instructions were made public by an undercover man working in the Nazi-fascist movement of this country.

“When the MAD MOB gets in MOTION make sure that they dig all of the blood-sucking banksters out from under their piles of rock and steel. Line them up against a wall and SHOOT them. See that they run down all the Political Parasites. Don’t miss a single Politician, big or little. Just HANG them to the nearest tree or lamp-post.” (The emphasis is in the original)

This is a sample of the more dangerous Nazi-fascist propaganda. An effort is here made to appeal to workers. The pretense is made that the “mad mob” will be directed to shoot or hang the “blood-sucking banksters” and the “political parasites” – both most definitely enemies of the working class. But right here is the catch. LABOR CANNOT WIN ITS EMANCIPATION FROM ITS ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL OVERLORDS BY “MAD MOB” TACTICS. The would-be founders of fascism in this country are well aware of this fact.

The fate of the German workers must be a profound lesson to the workers here. Hitler directed his “mad mob” violence against the workers and against their organizations. This must never be forgotten. The big industrialists and bankers retired to the Riviera for the duration of the “disturbance,” confident that the Nazis were looking after their interests. Many of the political parasites got on the Nazi bandwagon. But the workers woke up to find that while the innocent Jews had been ruined, the exploiters were stronger than before. They beheld themselves without their unions, without their political parties, without their militant leadership – a new slavery.

No worker should for a moment allow himself to be confused by Nazi-fascist ruses. There is only one way in which the working class can free itself from their politicians – AND PREVENT THE RISE OF THE NAZIS TO POWER. Labor must strengthen its own economic and political organisations and inspire these organizations with the socialist purpose of ending capitalism and establishing a better social order.

This is what the Nazi-fascists fear. This is What they are hell-bent to prevent. That is why they spread their vicious appeals for assassination and violence, that is why they aim to create a revengeful but unorganized and unthinking rabble, that is why they are preparing a blood bath against advanced labor.
 

The Totalitarian Black-Jack in the Kid Glove

Every worker must ponder the fact that Hitler’s movement – perhaps the most brutal and retrogressive in all history – has nevertheless been graded by its founder with the name National SOCIALISM. Socialism, as every worker should know, is the next step in human progress. Why, then, of all the titles he could have chosen, did Hitler tack the “Socialist” label to his anti-socialist movement?

The answer is, of course, that he was trying to fool the working people. The ideal of socialism was deeply embedded in the minds and hearts of German workers. Not only in their politics, but in their Unions as well, they connected their everyday problems with the goal of the working class to establish socialism. Unfortunately, the German Workers – as were workers everywhere else – had been misled by the social democratic politicians and betrayed by the Stalinists.

Along came Hitler with his false use of the word “Socialist,” with his make-believe diatribes against the bankers, with his cynical promise of a “new order.” With these lures he fooled a small section of the youngest and least experienced of the German workers into support of a movement which brought them abject slavery and more misery.

This is exactly the trick used by the American brethren of Hitler. They know that the American worker has no use for the profit-grubbing capitalist who has not hesitated to have workers shot down on a picket line. These Nazi-fascists understand the natural loathing of the American worker for the octopus bankers whose international investments require armies, navies and wars.
 

A Trap for the Unwary

So Hitler’s apostles here hand out a line designed to trap the unwary worker. Their publications overflow with such phrases as “this monstrous civilization based on gold and greed” – this by the above-mentioned George W. Christians. Coughlin’s disreputable Social Justice shadow boxes with “the princes of privilege” and’ “the money changers in the temples.” These fascist fakers also pretend to champion “individual liberties.” They even have the nerve to make fake protests against “regimentation.”

But does any intelligent worker believe, for one moment, that Hitlerism can champion the workers cause against exploitation?

For instance, could Thomas J. Goodwin, Christian Front choice for Mayor in the last New York City election, have represented the workers? That Nazi-fascist, in the midst of the campaign, shamelessly declared: “There’s nothing wrong with fascism. Hitler has done a good job in Europe.” That is the very job the American fascists want repeated here.

Or could Coughlin do anything but harm the workers? This sleek rabble-rouser has only praise for Hitler’s “new order.” This “new order” that Coughlin is so crazy about has spread the domain of the : German “princes of privilege” over continental Europe and under this “new order” the “money changers in the temples” have acquired more peoples to exploit for profit.
 

Coughlin Wants to Cut Workers’ Wages

But Coughlin and Company reveal their dishonesty in still other ways. The workers today are struggling to maintain their wage scales at a level to meet the towering cost of living. Ah, but Social Justice has quite different plans for the workers. It believes that the completely inadequate pittance of $21 a month paid to the draftee should be the national wage norm for all workers. It sets up as a brilliant guiding star the German, Japanese and Russian method of dealing with the wage question. Here are its very words:

“. factory workers, office workers, field workers and political workers [must] knuckle down to the same comparative salary received by the Army and Navy workers. Japan learned that lesson. So did Germany. So did all the Axis powers. And so did Russia.”

Every worker will agree that reducing his wages to a coolie level of existence is a very queer way of fighting the “money changers in the temples” and the “princes of privilege”!

The totalitarian black-jack sticks out of the smooth kid glove of Nazi-fascist propaganda. Hitler’s American disciples, like their master, stand for everything and promise anything that may get them support. But a worker must never forget what they want support for. THEY WANT SUPPORT FOR A NAZI-FASCIST TOTALITARIAN SYSTEM IN THIS COUNTRY!

All of the fascists – the Coughlins, Pelleys, etc. – have one thing in common with all fascist movements in every country. They hate and would destroy the workers’ greatest bulwark: the organized labor movement. They may talk big, but when it comes to a showdown they always side with the moneychangers, profiteers and industrialists, against the working people.

In the last article of this series, two points will be covered. First, how the Nazi-fascist fuehrers are organizing for action. Second, a program of action for the working class and the just-getting-along people – Jews and Gentiles, black and white. Hitler’s cohorts in America can be stopped. They must be stopped.


Hopkins Hill, R.I. – April 3, 1942

At 5:52 a.m. on April 3, 1942, a B-25A Mitchell Bomber (40-2193) left Westover Army Air Field in Chicopee, Massachusetts, headed south towards Narragansett Bay and the Atlantic for an anti-submarine patrol. The belly of the aircraft was loaded with depth charges.

The crew of five servicemen aboard included: the pilot, 2 nd Lt. George Loris Dover co-pilot, 2 nd Lt. Neil W. Frame radio operator S/Sgt. Robert H. Trammell the bombardier, Pvt. Robert H. Meredith and tail gunner, Pvt. Thomas J. Rush.

The men were assigned to the 41 st Bombardment Squadron, attached to the 13 th Bombardment Group, recently transferred from Orlando Army Air Base in Florida.

The weather that day was seasonable for early April with clear skies and five miles visibility. The plane took a course over Rhode Island, but barely twenty minutes into the flight one of engines began to sputter and loose power. Lt. Dover was an experienced pilot and evidently didn’t deem the situation serious as no radio distress call was sent and no attempt was made by the crew to bail out or salvo the depth charges. What happened next is based on the findings of the Army Air Corps crash investigation committee.

While still over the southern part of Rhode Island, the pilot turned the plane around and was most likely going to attempt a landing at Hillsgrove Army Air Field in Warwick. As the B-25 was passing over West Greenwich, Rhode Island, it either stalled or completely lost power, before it crashed into Hopkins Hill.

The official crash investigation report (42-4-3-1) stated in part, “…the absence of a swath approaching the final scene of (the) accident would seem to indicate a complete lack of power. The pilot is believed to have established a steep glide in order to maintain flying speed and headed for the nearest clearing. Upon reaching terrain expedient with altitude and circumstances he is thought to have attempted recovery from this glide and mushed on into ground in a complete stall.”

When the plane hit the ground it was assumed that the crew was either killed or rendered unconscious. Fire broke out immediately when the nearly full gas tanks ruptured, which set off the depth charges sending debris from the plane hurtling more than 200 yards. Those living nearby later reported that the blasts shook their homes.

The first to arrive at the scene was Earl B. Harrington of Hopkins Hill Road. He had heard the plane pass over his house “It was fairly low”, he later said in his statement to the Army, “and the motors were not functioning properly in that they were skipping, popping, and snapping.”

Shortly afterwards one of his sons informed him that there was a column of smoke rising from the woods. He related, “As soon as I could get dressed, my boy and I made our way through the woods towards the column of smoke. On our way we heard three small explosions followed by a very big one which nearly knocked us to our knees. We were at the time about two hundred and twenty five yards away. Wreckage and rocks went over us. We were shielded by the low hill. We knew it was a plane then and that it was burning so we hurried to the Victory Highway and phoned the State Police.”

Mrs. Anne E. Esleck of Ten Rod Road in Exeter also heard the plane go overhead and the subsequent explosions. In her statement to the Army she recalled, “The time was about 6:30. The motors seemed to cut out, and in about two or three minutes we heard a series of small explosions for about ten minutes. Then came the large explosion, which rocked the pictures on the walls.”

Another person who reported feeling the force of the explosions was Mr. R.F. Rathburn who stated, “About ten minutes later we heard a very loud explosion just over the ridge to the south, which shook the house badly. I looked out the window and saw a lot of white smoke, and many bright sparks in the air.”

At 6:40 am Trooper Francis D. Egan of the Wickford Barracks received the first report of the plane crash and dispatched Sergeant Harold E. Shippee and Trooper Wilfrid L. Gates to investigate.

A poor quality reproduction of the army investigation report photo of the blast crater.

While searching for the plane. Sergeant Shippee met Earl Harrington who directed him to the general location. The sergeant parked his cruiser at the intersection of Hopkins Hill Road and Brown Trail Road and proceeded on foot through the woods. (In 1942 the Brown Trail an unpaved dirt trail.) When he reached the scene he discovered that there were no survivors and realized that the aircraft was a military plane by the star insignia on one of the wings. He made his way back to his car and radioed the barracks requesting notification of military and fire officials.

Trooper Gates took a post at Hopkins Hill Road and Brown Trail Road to divert sightseers away from the area and keep the road clear for military vehicles.

Sergeant Shippee then returned to the crash site and made a wide search of the immediate area. The fires were still burning and some of the aircraft metal was described in the official state police report as being “white hot”. The sergeant noted a wide debris field and a large crater, about 25-30 feet wide, where the plane had landed and exploded.

At about 7:00 a.m. Captain Leonard C. Lydon, squadron commander of the 66th Pursuit Squadron, stationed at Quonset Point, was notified of the crash by Naval Operations. He drove to the scene with Squadron Flight Surgeon, Lieutenant Mark E. Conan, and the Squadron D.P. officer, 1 st Lieutenant Sherman Hoar, and a detail of eleven men.

According to official reports, the contingent arrived at the scene about 9:00 a.m. Sergeant Shippee met with Captain Lydon and turned the scene over to him. The captain was informed that Trooper Eagan in Car 41 would be assigned to stand by in case any radio messages needed to be sent over the cars’ two-way radio.

In the meantime, firefighters led by Chief Fire Warden John H. Potter had been busy putting out the numerous fires since 8 a.m. The chief had also detailed a group of men to conduct a search for anyone who may have parachuted out of the plane before it went down.

X marks the Approximate location of the crash site.

Two bodies and one partial one were found about one hundred yards and two hundred yards respectively from the major portion of the wreckage. Two more were removed from the shattered tail section. All were transported to the Gorton Funeral Home in Coventry, R.I. under the supervision of Lieutenant Conan.

At about 9:30 a.m., 2nd Lieutenant Kenneth B. Skoropowski, Armament Officer of the 66 th Pursuit Squadron at Quonset, arrived to oversee the removal of all ordinance from the scene. He recovered three .30 caliber, Browning M-2 machine guns, one .50 caliber Browning machine gun from the tail section, two flare pistols, and some live ammunition.

Captain John L. Sullivan, Lt. Harcos, and 1 st Lt. Charles P. Sheffield arrived on the scene from Westover Field to take over the investigation. They sifted through the debris, took photographs, and interviewed witnesses.

Diagram of the crash site drawn by 1st Lt. Charles P. Sheffield that was included with the official investigation report.

Lieutenant Sheffield drew a diagram of the crash site which he included as “Exhibit 7- B” with the official report.

One item of interest to the investigators was the planes ignition switch, which the investigation report stated “The ignition switch installation was burned and damaged so as to preclude drawing of precise conclusions but the master ignition switch is believed to have been in the “off” position.” This could be an indication that the pilot cut the engines just before impact in an attempt to prevent a fire.

The investigators concluded that the aircraft was almost level when it hit the ground due to the pattern of debris. Weather and sabotage were ruled out as factors in the crash.

The Army, as was the custom, made arrangements for all debris to be removed from the site. Today, time and Mother Nature have erased all traces of the disaster, and except for the blast crater, there is nothing to suggest that a horrific tragedy once occurred there.

The official investigation report contains several testimonials to the flying ability and competence of the pilot, Lieutenant Dover, and it is clear that investigators did not fault him for the crash.

The crash was blamed on a faulty engine and went on to state that there had been other problems with the R-2600-9 engines on other aircraft. In paragraph #30, under “recommendations”, the report stated “That the R-2600-9 airplane engine be tested in detail and that 17 engines changed (all for reasons other than normal running time and crashes) in this group since 1 Jan. 1942 to present date be minutely examined for such modifications and structural changes as are found necessary. Unofficial information indicates that technical organizations other than this Group are experiencing like difficulties with this engine and that a serious situation exists endangering materiel lives of flying personnel and morale of Combat Crews.”

In paragraph 32 section b, the report states: “ A report, subject: “Troubles with R-2600-9 Engines” dated April 10, 1942 has been forwarded to the Commanding General Bomber Command, a copy which has been furnished the Commanding Officer, Sub-Depot, Westover Field, Mass.”

It’s unknown if this accident report had any direct effect, but it’s interesting to note that future production B-25’s, beginning with the B-25D model, were equipped with different engines – Wright R-2600-13’s.

Lieutenant George Dover. Photo from the Shelby Daily Star, April 6, 1942.

The pilot, 2nd Lieutenant George Loris Dover , known as Loris to his friends and family, came from Shelby, North Carolina. He was born December 23, 1916 and was 25 years old at the time of his death.

He graduated Shelby High School and went on to attend Mars Hill College in Mars Hill, North Carolina, where he graduated in 1935. He then went to the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and graduated in 1937.

After graduation, he relocated to Kent, Ohio, where he worked for Davey Tree Surgery before enlisting in the Army Air Corps on December 28, 1940. He graduated flight training and was awarded his “wings” August 15, 1941 at Kelly Field in San Antonio, Texas. From there he was assigned to the 41 st Bombardment Squadron and sent to Orlando Air Field, in Orlando Florida. In January of 1942 his squadron was transferred to Westover Field in Massachusetts.

He was waked at his father’s home at 851 West Warren Street, and flowers completely filled two rooms of the home. More than 3000 townspeople filed through the house to pay their respects. The funeral service was held at First Baptist Church, with members of the Warren Hoyle American Legion Post acting as pallbearers. He was the first serviceman from Shelby, as well as Cleveland County, to lose his life in World War II.

Lieutenant Dover was survived by his father and step mother, one sister, Nancy Ellen of Mars Hill, N.C., a half-sister Mary Ann Dover of Shelby, and two brothers, Grady Eugene and Paul. He also left behind a fiancée, Miss Virginia Rose of LaGrange, Illinois. They were to be married in August of 1942.

The V.F.W. Post 4066 in Shelby, North Carolina, was named in Lt. Dover’s honor.

George was not the only loss suffered by the Dover Family in World War II. At the funeral, George’s younger brother, 21-year-old Grady who was attending the University of North Carolina at the time, was quoted by the Shelby Daily Star as saying, “Somebody’ll have to take Loris’ place.” He entered the Army Air Corps as a pilot and was promoted to 1 st Lieutenant. He was killed in action when his B-17 bomber went down on a raid over Germany on February 10, 1944.

George and Grady are buried next to their mother, who died in 1928, in the Cora Section of the Sunset Cemetery.

Funeral of Lt. Dover – Shelby Daily Star April 8, 1942

Co-pilot, 2ed Lieutenant Neil Ward Frame, was born in Porterville, California, during the First World War, on September 22, 1917, the youngest son of Jesse E. and Madge E. Frame. He grew up with six brothers and sisters, graduated from Porterville High School, and went on to junior college before transferring to the University of California to study agriculture. It was while he was attending college at Davis, California, that he decided to enlist in the Air Corps. He earned his pilot’s wings at Kelly Field in San Antonio, Texas on August 15, 1941, graduating in the same class as Lieutenant Dover.

Like Lieutenant Dover, he was the first from his community to lose his life in World War II. His boyhood friends served as pallbearers at his funeral, which the local paper, the Porterville Recorder, stated, “No funeral held in Porterville ever brought such a throng of sympathizers”.

An Episcopal service was conducted by Rev. Ralph Cox, assisted by the Rev. H.G. Purchase, at the Loyd-Frietzsche Chapel, before the procession proceeded to the Porterville Cemetery where the local American Legion conducted a funeral ritual and the high school band played “Nearer My God to Thee”, before an eight-man firing squad fired a salute, and two buglers played taps. He was laid to rest in plot B-125-2.

The Merchants Committee of the Porterville Chamber of Commerce voted to close all stores in the city during the funeral as a show of respect and patriotic duty.

Lieutenant Frame lived at 600 E. Street, Porterville, California, and besides his parents, he was survived by his brothers, Harold and Carl, and four sisters, Mrs. Carl Martin, of Palo Alto, California, Mrs. Kenneth Hill of Visalia, Mrs. Norman Castle and Miss Barbara frame both of Porterville. His brother Carl had enlisted as a doctor in the armed forces and had sailed only a week earlier for overseas duty.

Staff Sergeant Robert H. Trammell was born April 23, 1916 and was 20 days shy of his 26 th birthday. Before the war he lived at 2309 Ellis Street , Brunswick, Georgia. He was survived by his parents, Mildred B. and Joseph H. Trammell Sr., a sister, Mrs. H. Lee Haskins also of Brunswick, and an older brother, Blair Trammell, who was also in the service stationed at Pensacola Air base in Pensacola, Florida.

He is buried in Palmetto Cemetery, Glynn County, Georgia, Lot 152-8

Private Robert Huel Meredith , the bombardier, was the only married man of the crew. He was survived by his wife of only three months, listed in his obituary as “Mrs. R.H. Meredith”, of Alexandria, Louisiana.

He was born May 22, 1920, which also made him the youngest of the crew – about five weeks away from his 22nd birthday.

He attended high school in Thyatira, Mississippi, and went on to Harding College in Searcy, Arkansas. He left his studies to join the Army Air Corps in 1941 and went to bombardier school.

Being a bombardier during World War II was considered a big responsibility. According to the United states Air Force Museum, the training to become a bombardier lasted 12 to 18 weeks, during which the student learned his skill by dropping approximately 160 bombs. He was scored by his “hits” and “misses”, and roughly 12% of each class was “washed out” for failing to gain enough “hits”.

In the beginning of the war, bomber aircraft such as the B-25 carried the Sperry S-1 Bombsight. When the highly classified, top secret, Norden M-1 Bombsight was introduced later, bombardiers were required to take an oath stating they would protect the Norden with their life!

In addition to his wife, he left behind his parents, Kathleen Meredith of Thyatira, and T.H. Meredith of Memphis, Tennessee, as well as two sisters and a brother, Miss Marinelle Meredith, Thyatira, Mrs. Leonard Jones, Memphis, and Wilfred Meredith of Independence, Missouri.

The funeral services were conducted by Rev. H. I. Copeland, held in the Thyatira School Auditorium. Burial was at Mt. Zion Cemetery

The tail gunner, Private Thomas J. Rush , was the oldest crewman at 27. He was born August 23, 1915 and enlisted in the Army Air Corps in June of 1941. Before entering the service, he had been a caddy master at the Overbrook Golf Club in Philadelphia and an amateur boxer. He had lived at 1688 N. 56 th Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and was survived by his parents, Joseph and Catherine Rush, as well as three sisters, Mrs. Benjamin B. Evans, Mrs. John F. McFadden, and Miss Sue Rush, and three brothers, James, Joseph, and Patrick.

The funeral was held at St. Gregory’s Church and burial took place at Holy Cross Cemetery.

The B-25 Mitchell was a twin-engine medium bomber built by North American Aviation of Inglewood, California, and Kansas City, Missouri. Of the roughly 10,000 that were produced between 1939 and 1945, only 40 were designated B-25A’s, thereby making this particular aircraft rare.

The “A” variant was an early production model powered by two Wright R-2600-9 engines capable of delivering a maximum of 1,700 hp each. It was designed to carry up to 3,660 pounds of bombs and could defend itself against enemy fighters with up to four .30-caliber, and one .50-caliber machine guns.

The plane involved in this accident was the only B-25 to ever crash in Rhode Island.

U.S. Army Air Corps crash investigation report dated April 1942, (#42-4-3-1)

Rhode Island State Police report, dated April 3, 1942

Newspaper article, “Five Killed In Bomber Near West Greenwich ”, The Pawtucket Times, April 3, 1942, page 1

Newspaper article, “Couple Heard Plane Motor Sputter before fatal Dive”, The Pawtucket Times, April 3, 1942, page 6

Newspaper article, “Lt. Neil frame Dies In Crash (of) Army Bomber”, Proterville Recorder, April 3, 1942, Page 1

Newspaper article “Local Boy One Of Five Victims OF Air Tragedy”, The Shelby Daily Star, April 3, 1942, page 1

Newspaper article, “Army Probes Bomber Crash”, The Pawtucket Times, April 4, 1942, page 1

Newspaper article, “Cause Unknown In Air Crash 1 Body Missing”, The Woonsocket call, April 4, 1942, page 1

Newspaper article, “Bomber Crashes in R.I., Five Dead”, The Providence Journal, April 4, 1942, page 1

Newspaper article, “Dover’s Body On Way Home”, The Shelby Daily Star, April 4, 1942, page 1

Death notice, “Robt. Trammel Be Buried Here”, Brunswick News, Saturday, April 4, 1942

Newspaper article “Loris Dover To Be Buried Here”, The Shelby Daily Star, April 6, 1942, page 1

Newspaper obituary, “Lt Neil frame Funeral Rites 2 P.M. Friday”, Porterville Recorder, April 6, 1942

Newspaper article, “Dover Funeral Is Conducted”, The Shelby Daily Star, April 8, 1942, page 1, (two photos with article)

Newspaper article, “Close Stores For Lt. Frame Rites Friday”, Porterville Record April 8, 1942

Newspaper article, “Dover Funeral Hero’s Tribute”, The Shelby Daily Star, April 9, 1942, page 1

Obituary, “Robt. H. Meredith 2 nd Tate Casualty Buried Tuesday”, The Tate County Democrat, April 9, 1942, Page 1

Newspaper article, “Military Service For First Porterville Boy To Give His Life In New World War”, Porterville Record, April 11, 1942

Obituary, “Thomas J. Rush Rites”, Unknown newspaper & date, sent by The Free Library of Philadelphia, to Greenville Library in June 2006.

Book, “Troopers Of The Rhode Island State Police And Their Story”, By Harold C. Jones, 2001, Vantage Press

United States Air Force Museum Website

Town of West Greenwich, R.I. Death Records

Footprints In Time, Tombstone Inscriptions In Tate County, Mississippi, Compiled by Mrs. Janice Barnett Craft, Page 17


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Norwich A Baedeker City - April 1942

PROLOGUE
There must still be some of us left, now all well into our seventies or more, who can recall the night of Monday 27th/Tuesday 28th April 1942. The first night of the Norwich blitz. I was seven coming up eight years old at the time. Not surprisingly, the incident has left indelible memories that, even after more than sixty years, are still as horrific as on that night.

For me it started at around 11.30pm when I was awakened by the voice of my father, a WW1 veteran, loudly shouting, "Bombs, bombs!" The family was at that instant, in their beds, presumably sleeping. That is, mum and dad, two elder sisters and me. I was youngest and my dear mum must have grabbed me from bed and rapidly descended the stairs, entered the living room then took a restricted flying dive with me under our dining table. We were all just in time. The first wave of Luftwaffe aircraft were dropping their high explosive bombs, softening up the city for the later incendiary attack to take over with their devastating fiercly burning fires. Mum told me later that as she dived with me under the table, my head struck the table top, just above my right eye. In spite of this I recall the holocaust in our living room - I can see it now in slow motion just as I did then. Due to bomb blast red-hot ashes were sucked from the dying embers in the grate of the living room fire. I recall the singeing feeling on my bare legs. The glass in the French windows rapidly cracked before my eyes, starting with small circles in the centre and working outwards. Yet the still intact panes bowed towards us in the room but, amazingly to me, suddenly reversed their direction. Then amidst a turmoil of noise, doors and everything else reasonably moveable became wrenched by an invisible force to go flying out into the garden. Pieces of ceiling rained down and by now, more than likely, the blow on my head was taking effect. I may have run instinctively beside my mother to the underground shelter in our garden, but the next thing I knew was the family huddled together in our small, damp, underground dungeon. All were safe and alive - my mother openly gave thanks to God for our protection.

This was my initiation into 'man's inhumanity to man'. Sadly, it seems to be an ongoing theme.

INTRODUCTION
What I want to do is to be informative and entertaining, even though the subject is sombre and in some places unavoidably technical. It is my opinion that a reasonable explanation of the Norwich Baedeker raid has never been available. So called official reports may contain cover-up statements, war time security measures also meant that much of what transpired could not be given at the time. This is understandable, but even after over sixty years, records have never been set straight. The time is fast approaching when underlying truths will no longer matter to a later generation, and why Norwich was stripped of parts of her inheritance will be lost in unrecorded history.

Consider these points. Contrary to some official statements, no public aural air-raid siren sounded before the Luftwaffe first raid. The apparent selection of the Heigham area for more intensive bombing has never been explained. Norwich was known to be the target that night, because a Luftwaffe radio navigational beam, which they called their knickebein, had been detected and assessed before the air raid. A new anti-jamming modification the enemy incorporated into their beam was to work splendidly although British scientists, from intelligence reports, had long before warned our services of the newer technique to be used. The British countermeasure was poorly designed and certainly not tested for effectiveness in any way. Earlier countermeasures against enemy beams were highly successful. Quite often our defence services used knowledge of an enemy beam to guide our own defending fighter aircraft onto the incoming bomber stream. These successes may have engendered complacency. To our lasting regret, Norwich and her citizens suffered because of a relatively simple enemy ruse that fooled our services.

Over the years I have read many books about the second world war and the techniques employed by both sides to achieve adequate air navigation for accurate bombing. With my advanced age I cannot remember the names of many of these books nor of their authors, so a good deal of my explanations are drawn from memories of others' work. My current personal library, after years of travel, is sadly depleted of much useful reference work. However, where my statements are conjecture or reasonably intelligent projections of what is known, I will make a positive statement to this effect. Some may find my 'Beam' explanation a bit over the top, but try to stay with it. It may open your eyes as to how simple a well-designed navigation aid is to the user - in this case an aircraft pilot.

The Norwich Baedeker Raid of 1942 has many fascinating loose ends, it could be that some may find an answer here.

GETTING TECHNICAL
Let's start with the reason for no public air-raid siren being sounded. Please remember the enemy beam was already switched on, so for our defences, it was only a matter of waiting for the bombers to be plotted from radar reports as on their way. Over the years, I have talked to many fellow citizens who experienced that night of the first Baedeker raid, this has included young and old. Everyone is adamant, no warning siren was heard. Any filed report, which can be produced suggesting that we did have a warning siren, is highly suspect and probably represents a face saving document for some official.

The Norwich raid was both well planned and executed. Our British services were completely duped by the enemy's tactics. In a nutshell, the method was to send out a bomber force, in total about thirty aircraft. They were in waves of five or six, with good reason for this, as I will explain later. Their aircraft would fly northwards over the North Sea probably on a radio beam and when sufficiently north, level with the north Norfolk coast, they turned west and picked up their other beam. This second beam we had already detected - it was their intention - and it produced an aerial highway directly over central Norwich. Flight leaders ensured their bombers turned and were also tuned-in onto the second beam. These incoming enemy aircraft picked up their second beam over the general vicinity of around Sheringham and Cromer, on the north Norfolk coast. The clever part is that they now flew 'down' their beam to Norwich and not 'upwards' from the south as we anticipated. Can you now realise why any official report claiming the timely sounding of warning sirens must represent downright lies? We were taken completely by surprise. A simple enemy trick but highly effective.

In order to give a better idea of the problems our defence forces experienced, it will be useful for me to explain a bit later, in moderately technical terms, the basic principle used for a knickebein beam. For us, it took around two and a half years of warfare to realise how necessary radio navigational aids were for accurate bombing. In those early years, few experts on our side appreciated the poor accuracy of RAF bombing.

There was sometimes, even more often, a lack of understanding between aircrews and the RAF special personnel skilled in practical knowledge of radio techiques. Although ground staff, they were required to undertake flights in order to discover and evaluate enemy radio beams. However, these special personnel were not classified as aircrew and consequently carried relatively low rank. Aircraft, in which they did this work, were allocated at short notice and some flown by pilots apprehensive of being shot-down on a non-combative mission. One pilot, who felt slighted by low ranking 'erks' carrying out work he could do easily himself, made a superficial investigation claiming it was possible to fly and evaluate a beam accurately. Sadly, he crashed while conducting his one-man mission and died before any report could be made. These problems tend to be peculiar to the British system, which in those first years of the war was too rigid and hierarchal. A very flexible and co-operative organisation is required to deal with an unknown and changeable opposition.

Actually the navigational radio beam system used by the Luftwaffe was, in its basic form, quite well known and already used in civil aviation of that time. It was based on the 'Standard Blind Approach', by the mid-1930s a method used by many airlines at suitably equipped airports. The correct or commercially registered name of that system is the 'Lorenz Beam', not surprisingly, a German invention.

TRY THIS FOR SIZE
The Continentals were researching into what we now know as VHF long before the British. VHF will give only a short range of ground coverage, and in the 1930s this characteristic had no technical advantage for our home radio broadcasting services. The Lorenz beam blind approach system used VHF but it only required a relatively short range, at most around ten to fifteen miles. Luftwaffe research showed that at aircraft heights, rather than near the ground, much greater ranges were obtained, with some evidence that the beam did tend to curve with the earth's surface. They suggested that perhaps with greater transmitter power the Lorenz beam could be adapted to give a long-range aerial highway for accurate aircraft navigation. The answer obtained was a positive one, and by the late 1930s, the Luftwaffe tested and was satisfied with the system it then adopted. For very good technical reasons the Lorenz system has to use two beams, their having a marginal separation. The reason being that on VHF, one directional beam cannot be produced sufficiently narrow to be useful navigationally. These marginally separated beams have a critical overlap. This useful overlap can be made relatively narrow and with suitable transmitter power, its range could extend to over 200 miles. Another consideration is how the user, an aircraft pilot, can work the system to identify where to find the narrow central overlap and follow its direction. The answer it that the two separate beams, differently identified, are produced from the same transmitter but this is done sequentially. For example, the transmitter is connected to the left hand aerial as it sends a 'dot' signal. By very rapid automatic switching, the same transmitter is connected to the right hand aerial as it sends a 'dash' signal. The sequence between left and right, that is, dot and dash, alternates continuously. Spaces between dots are equal to the dash signal and vice-versa. A pilot in the outer area of the left hand beam listening on headphones will hear a series of slow dots. In the outer area of the right hand beam, he will hear fairly rapid dashes. If a pilot hears the dot signal and then flies towards his right, he soon finds that the dots become less distinct and then form a continuous tone as they merge with the dashes in the 'overlap' section of the two beams. The dashes fill completely the spaces between dots. Should he hear a series of dashes, he flies towards his left and the dashes will merge into the continuous tone of the 'equisignal' zone where the beams overlap. Obviously, a pilot flies along the equisignal zone, easily correcting any drift to either side of the required course. The system is user friendly and the technique is soon mastered. This principle, known as a split beam is the basis of the low power Lorenz blind approach technique. The Luftwaffe used this principle for what they called their 'knickbein' system. There were a number of variations of knickbein and they could include additional crossbeam stations to signal 'approaching target' and 'release bombs'. The transmitter and aerial system were housed on a large turntable that could be set-up accurately to give a navigational corridor extending well into enemy territory. Motorised mobile versions were also produced allowing rapid deployment at suitable sites.

The 'knickbein' used for the Norwich raid was more than likely situated at Calais, at that time enemy occupied territory. Evidence points to this location as being correct, as I will show. Over Norwich, the aerial highway had a width of about the distance between our City Hall and Castle Museum. It represented an identified swathe cut for accurate navigation and bombing. Together with intelligence information given to the aircrews, made it an easy matter to find and pinpoint most of what they hit with their bombs. Not a bad accuracy for 1942.

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Queen's Own (Royal West Kent Regiment) during WW1

Since 1815 the balance of power in Europe had been maintained by a series of treaties. In 1888 Wilhelm II was crowned ‘German Emperor and King of Prussia’ and moved from a policy of maintaining the status quo to a more aggressive position. He did not renew a treaty with Russia, aligned Germany with the declining Austro-Hungarian Empire and started to build a Navy rivalling that of Britain. These actions greatly concerned Germany’s neighbours, who quickly forged new treaties and alliances in the event of war. On 28th June 1914 Franz Ferdinand the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne was assassinated by the Bosnian-Serb nationalist group Young Bosnia who wanted pan-Serbian independence. Franz Joseph's the Austro-Hungarian Emperor (with the backing of Germany) responded aggressively, presenting Serbia with an intentionally unacceptable ultimatum, to provoke Serbia into war. Serbia agreed to 8 of the 10 terms and on the 28th July 1914 the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia, producing a cascade effect across Europe. Russia bound by treaty to Serbia declared war with Austro-Hungary, Germany declared war with Russia and France declared war with Germany. Germany’s army crossed into neutral Belgium in order to reach Paris, forcing Britain to declare war with Germany (due to the Treaty of London (1839) whereby Britain agreed to defend Belgium in the event of invasion). By the 4th August 1914 Britain and much of Europe were pulled into a war which would last 1,566 days, cost 8,528,831 lives and 28,938,073 casualties or missing on both sides.

The Regiment raised a total of 18 battalions during the First World War and was awarded 79 battle honours and 3 Victoria Crosses during the course of the war.

1st Battalion
04.08.1914 Stationed in Dublin as part of the 13th Bridge of the 5th Division.
15.08.1914 Mobilised for war and landed at Havre and engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1914
The Battle of Mons and subsequent retreat, The Battle of Le Cateau, The Battle of the Marne, The Battle of the Aisne, The Battles of La Bassee and Messines 1914, The First Battle of Ypres.
During 1915
The Second Battle of Ypres, the Capture of Hill 60.
During 1916
The Attacks on High Wood, The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, The Battle of Morval, The Battle of Le Transloy.
During 1917
The Battle of Vimy, The Attack on La Coulotte, The Third Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of Polygon Wood, The Battle of Broodseinde, The Battle of Poelcapelle, The Second Battle of Passchendaele.
Dec 1917 Moved to Italy arriving at Fontivilla to strengthen the Italian resistance.
April 1918 Returned to France and once again engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1918
The Battle of Hazebrouck, The Battle of Albert, The Battle of Bapaume, The Battle of Drocourt-Queant, The Battle of the Epehy, The Battle of the Canal du Nord, The pursuit to the Selle, The Battle of the Selle.
11.11.1918 Ended the war in France, Pont sur Sambre S.W. of Maubeuge.

2nd Battalion
04.08.1914 Stationed at Multan at the outbreak of war.
30.01.1915 Embarked for Mesopotamia from Bombay arriving at Basra to join the 12th Indian Brigade.
Nov 1915 Two companies were attached to the 30th Brigade of the 6th Indian Division which was besieged at Kut al Amara and then captured in 29.04.1915.
Jan 1916 The remaining companies transferred to the 34th Brigade o f the 15th Indian Division which engaged in various actions against the Turkish forces including
Action of As Sahilan, Capture of Ramadi
Aug 1917 the 34th Brigade transferred to the 17th Indian Division which engaged in various actions against the Turkish forces including
The Action at Fat-ha Gorge, The Battle of Sharqat.
31.10.1918 Ended the war in Mesopotamia, Fattah Gorge on Tirgis north of Tikrit.

3rd (Reserve) Battalion
04.08.1914 Stationed at Maidstone and then moved to Chatham.
Summer 1918 Moved to Leysdown on the Isle of Sheppey.

1/4th Battalion Territorial Force
04.08.1914 Stationed at Tonbridge as part of the Kent Brigade of the Home Counties Division and then moved to Dover, Canterbury and then Sandwich.
30.10.1914 Embarked for India from Southampton where the Division was broken up and remained in India throughout the war.

1/5th Battalion Territorial Force
04.08.1914 Stationed at Bromley as part of the Kent Brigade of the Home Counties Division and then moved to Dover, Canterbury and then Sandwich.
30.10.1914 Embarked for India from Southampton where the Division was broken up and remained in India throughout the war.
Dec 1917 Moved to Mesopotamia landing at Basra and joined the 54th Brigade of the 18th Indian Division which engaged in various actions against the Turkish forces including
the Actions at the Fat-ha Gorge, the actions on Little Zab and the Battle of Sharqat
31.10.1918 Ended the war in Mesopotamia, near Sharqat on Tigris north of Tikrit.

2/4th Battalion Territorial Force
Sept 1914 Formed at Tonbridge and then moved to Ascot to join the 202nd Brigade of the 67th Division.
April 1915 The 202nd Brigade was renamed the 2/Kent Brigade and the Kent Composite Battalion was formed from the H.Q. and 1 company of the 2/4th Royal West Kent, 1 company of the 2/4th East Kent, 1 company of the 2/5th East Kent and 1 of the 2/5th Royal West Kent battalions.
24.04.1915 The composite battalion joined the 160th Brigade of the 53rd Division and moved to Cambridge and then Bedford finally becoming the 2/4th Royal West Kent Battalion.
20.07.1915 Embarked for Alexandria from Southampton via Mudros.
10.08.1915 Landed at Suvla Bay
13.12.1915 Evacuated to Egypt due to heavy casualties from combat, disease and severe weather conditions with the Division at only 15% of its full strength. It now engaged in various actions as part of the Palestine Campaign including
During 1916
The Battle of Romani.
During 1917
The First Battle of Gaza, The Second Battle of Gaza, The Third Battle of Gaza, the Capture of Tell Khuweilfe, The Capture of Jerusalem, The Defence of Jerusalem.
During 1918
The battle of Tell'Asur.
13.09.1918 Disbanded after leaving the Division.

2/5th Battalion Territorial Force
Sept 1914 Formed at Bromley and then moved to Ascot to join the 202nd Brigade of the 67th Division.
May 1915 Moved to Kent and then Tonbridge.
July 1916 Moved to Canterbury and then Ashford and back to Canterbury.
Nov 1917 Disbanded.

3/4th Battalion Territorial Force
July 1915 Formed at Bromley and then moved to Cambridge.
08.04.1916 Became 5th Reserve Battalion at Crowborough.
01.09.1916 Absorbed by the 4th (Reserve) Battalion.

4/4th Battalion Territorial Force
July 1915 Formed and then moved to Cambridge.
08.04.1916 Moved to Crowborough and became the 4th (Reserve) Battalion.
01.09.1916 Absorbed the 5th (Reserve) Battalion as part of the Home Counties Reserve Brigade.
Oct 1916 Moved to Tunbridge Wells where it remained.

6th (Service) Battalion
14.08.1914 Formed at Maidstone as part of the First New Army (K1) and then moved to Colchester to join the 37th Brigade of the 12th Division and then moved to Purfleet.
Feb 1915 Moved to Aldershot.
01.06.1915 Mobilised for war and landed at Boulogne and engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1915
The Battle of Loos.
During 1916
The Battle of Albert, The Battle of Pozieres, The Battle of Le Transloy.
During 1917
The First Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of Arleux, The Third Battle of the Scarpe, The Cambrai operations.
During 1918
The Battle of Bapaume, The First Battle of Arras 1918, The Battle of Amiens, The Battle of Albert, The Battle of Epehy, The Battle of the St Quentin canal, The Final Advance in Artois.
11.11.1918 Ended the war in France, Lecelles N.W. of St. Amand.

7th (Service) Battalion
05.09.1914 Formed at Maidstone as part of the Second New Army (K2) and then moved to Purfleet to join the 55th Brigade of the 18th Division.
April 1915 Moved to Colchester and then Codford, Salisbury Plain.
27.07.1915 Mobilise for war and landed at Havre and engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1916
The Battle of Albert, The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, The Battle of Delville Wood, The Battle of Thiepval Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre Heights, The Battle of the Ancre.
During 1917
Operations on the Ancre, The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line, The Third Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Langemarck, First Battle of Passchendaele, The Second Battle of Passchendaele.
09.02.1918 Transferred to the 53rd Brigade of the 18th Division which engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1918
The Battle of St Quentin, The Battle of the Avre, The actions of Villers-Brettoneux, The Battle of Amiens, The Battle of Albert, The Second Battle of Bapaume, The Battle of Epehy, The Battle of the St Quentin Canal, The Battle of the Selle, The Battle of the Sambre.
11.11.1918 Ended the war in France, Le Cateau.

8th (Service) Battalion
12.09.1914 Formed at Maidstone as part of the Third New Army (K3) and moved to Shoreham to join the 72nd Brigade of the 24th Division and then moved to Worthing.
April 1915 Moved back to Shoreham and then to Blackdown.
30.08.1915 Mobilised for war and landed at Boulogne and engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1915
The Battle of Loos.
During 1916
The German gas attack at Wulverghem, The Battle of Delville Wood, The Battle of Guillemont.
During 1917
The Battle of Vimy Ridge, The Battle of Messines, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Langemarck, The Cambrai Operations.
During 1918
The Battle of St Quentin, The Actions at the Somme Crossings, The Battle of Rosieres, The First Battle of the Avre, The Battle of Cambrai 1918, The pursuit to the Selle, The Battle of the Sambre.
11.11.1918 Ended the war in France, La Rolies east of Bavai.

9th (Service) Battalion
24.10.1914 Formed as a service battalion at Chatham as part of the Fourth New Army (K4) in the 93rd Brigade of the 31st Division.
10.04.1915 Became a 2nd Reserve Battalion of the 5th Reserve Brigade.
June 1915 Moved to Canterbury and then Colchester and then Shoreham.
01.09.1916 Absorbed into the Training Reserve Battalions of the 5th Reserve Brigade.

10th (Service) Battalion (Kent County)
03.05.1915 Formed by Lord Harris, Vice Lieutenant of Kent as requested by the Army Council at Maidstone.
July 1915 joined the 118th Brigade of the 39th Division
Oct 1915 Transferred to the 123rd Brigade of the 41st Division and taken over by the War Office.
Jan 1916 Moved to Aldershot.
04.05.1916 Mobilised for war and landed in France and engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1916
The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, The Battle of the Transloy Ridges.
During 1917
The Battle of Messines, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of the Menin Road, Operations on the Flanders coast.
Nov 1917 Moved to Italy to strengthen the Italian resistance.
Mar 1918 Returned to France arriving at Doullens and once again engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
The Battle of St Quentin, The Battle of Bapaume, The Battle of Arras, The Battles of the Lys, The Advance in Flanders, The Battle of Ypres, The Battle of Courtrai, The action of Ooteghem.
11.11.1918 Ended the war in Belgium, Rooverst west of Nederbrakel.

11th (Service) Battalion (Lewisham)
05.05.1915 Formed by The Mayor and local committee at Lewisham and then moved to Catford.
July 1915 joined the 118th Brigade of the 39th Division
Oct 1915 Transferred to the 122nd Brigade of the 41st Division and taken over by the War Office.
Jan 1916 Moved to Aldershot.
03.05.1916 Mobilised for war and landed in France and engaged in various actions on the Western Front including
During 1916
The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, The Battle of the Transloy Ridges.
During 1917
The Battle of Messines, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of the Menin Road, Operations on the Flanders coast.
Nov 1917 Moved to Italy to strengthen the Italian resistance.
Mar 1918 Returned to France arriving at Doullens and once again engaged in various actions on the Western Front.
16.03.1918 Disbanded in France.

12th (Reserve) Battalion
Feb 1916 Formed as a Local Reserve battalion from the depot companies of the 10th and 11th Battalions and then moved to Northampton to join the 23rd Reserve Brigade.
May 1916 Moved to Aldershot.
01.09.1916 Became the 99th Training Reserve Battalion in the 23rd Reserve Brigade.

1st (Home Service) Garrison Battalion
Mar 1916 Formed at Rochester and remained there until it became the 15th Battalion of the Royal Defence Corps.


Warsaw Ghetto Jews Revolt

The Warsaw ghetto uprising began after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. It took the Germans a month to crush the resistance.

Frame Your Search

Warsaw ghetto, Jews, Nazi, German, uprising, revolt, resistance, battle, massacre, deported, Treblinka

In the summer of 1942, about 300,000 Jews were deported from Warsaw to Treblinka . When reports of mass murder in the killing center leaked back to the Warsaw ghetto , a surviving group of mostly young people formed an organization called the Z.O.B. (for the Polish name, Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa, or Jewish Fighting Organization). The Z.O.B., led by 23-year-old Mordecai Anielewicz, issued a proclamation calling for the Jewish people to resist going to the railroad cars. In January 1943, Warsaw ghetto fighters fired upon German troops as they tried to round up another group of ghetto inhabitants for deportation. Fighters used a small supply of weapons that had been smuggled into the ghetto. After a few days, the troops retreated. This small victory inspired the ghetto fighters to prepare for future resistance.

On April 19, 1943 , the Warsaw ghetto uprising began after German troops and police entered the ghetto to deport its surviving inhabitants. Seven hundred and fifty fighters fought the heavily armed and well-trained Germans. The ghetto fighters were able to hold out for nearly a month, but on May 16, 1943 , the revolt ended. The Germans had slowly crushed the resistance . Of the more than 56,000 Jews captured, about 7,000 were shot, and those who remained were deported to camps.

Dates to Check

Typically, daily newspapers reported news the morning after it occurred. However, some papers were printed in multiple editions, including evening news. If you are using an evening paper, begin your search on the same day as the event being researched.

April 19, 1943 - May 16, 1943 News articles about the Warsaw ghetto uprising and destruction of the ghetto.

April 1943 - June 1943 News, editorials, op-eds, letters to the editor, and cartoons reacting to the Warsaw ghetto uprising and destruction of the ghetto.

September 1943 - May 1944 News, editorials, op-eds, letters to the editor, and cartoons reacting to the Warsaw ghetto uprising and destruction of the ghetto. This includes articles marking the one-year anniversary of the event in April-May 1944.

Learn More

Bibliography

Gutman, Israel. The Jews of Warsaw, 1939-1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.

Kassow, Samuel D. Who Will Write Our History?: Emanuel Ringelblum, the Warsaw Ghetto, and the Oyneg Shabes Archive. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2007.

Krakowski, Shmuel. The War of the Doomed: Jewish Armed Resistance in Poland, 1942-1944. New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984.


♫Today in Music History-April 19, 1942♫

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Good morning Joe, John The Animals also had Chas Chandler who managed Jimi Hendrix and was a great influence on his career. Andy Summers was there for a while and went on to be with The Police. I hope your MRI went OK yesterday.

I'm trying bring your IQ UP!! Guess I need to work harder.

Joe, over the last several months I have come to realize that you do two things very well. 1) You exhibit a wealth of knowledge in your daily "Today In Music History" puzzles and 2) you put my ignorance on display daily (don't take pride in #2 as I am the Master at showing off my ignorance). You would think that with the long string of hits the Animals produced I would know of at least one other member of the group beside Eric Burden, but no, I am totally clueless. Thanks Joe! I can almost hear my IQ dropping as I write this


Puerto Rico's History

Taíno Indians who inhabited the territory, called the island Boriken or Borinquen which means: "the great land of the valiant and noble Lord" or "land of the great lords". Today this word -used in various modifications- is still popularly used to designate the people and island of Puerto Rico. The Taíno Indians, who came from the Orinoco River in present Venezuela, inhabited the major portion of the island when the Spaniards arrived. The Taíno Indians, lived in small villages or "bateyes", and were organized in clans, led by a Cacique, or chief. They were a peaceful people who, with a limited knowledge of agriculture, lived on such domesticated tropical crops as pineapples, cassava, and sweet potatoes supplemented by seafood.

On April 17, Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain signed the agreement to finance and set the terms of Columbus's voyage to the Indies. The document is known as the Capitulations of Santa Fe. The agreement established that Columbus would become the viceroy and governor of all discovered land and rights to 10% of all assets brought to Spain, among other terms.

On August 3, the fleet of three ships --the Niña, the Pinta, and the Santa María-- set forth from Palos, Spain. The first sighting of land came at dawn on October 12. They landed at San Salvador, in the Bahamas. Thinking he had reached the East Indies, Columbus referred to the native inhabitants of the island as "Indians," a term that was ultimately applied to all indigenous peoples of the New World.


After the success of Columbus's first voyage, he had little trouble convincing Ferdinand and Isabela of Spain, to follow up immediately with a second voyage. Unlike the exploratory first voyage, the second voyage was a massive colonization effort. On September 25, Christopher Columbus set sail from Cádiz, Spain with 17 ships and almost 1,500 men. The second voyage brought European livestock (horses, sheep, and cattle) to America for the first time.

On November 19, Christopher Columbus discovered the island in his second voyage to the New World. He found the island populated by as many as 50,000 Taíno or Arawak Indians. The Taíno Indians who greeted Columbus made a big mistake when they showed him gold nuggets in the river and told him to take all he wanted. Originally the newcomers called the island San Juan Bautista, for St. John the Baptist and the town was named Puerto Rico ("rich port") for its abundance of natural resources, specially gold and its excellent location. It was not until later that the two names were switched. Thanks in part to the enthusiasm of ambitious Juan Ponce de León, a lieutenant to Columbus, the city of Puerto Rico, it quickly became Spain's most important military outpost in the Caribbean.

The Spanish Crown permitted export of slaves to America.

Governor Nicolás de Ovando opposes the importing of slaves.

First slaves arrive in Hispañola.

On March 25, Vicente Yañez Pinzón Captain was appointed "corregidor" of the island San Juan Bautista and governor of the fort that he was to construct therein.

On May 20, Christopher Columbus died in Valladolid, Spain.

Spanish colonization begins. King Ferdinand II of Aragon assigned Ponce de León to lead an official expedition to the island.

On January 14, first school in Puerto Rico was established in Caparra.

On June 15, 1508, Nicolas de Ovando, the viceroy of Espanola (Hispaniola), granted Ponce de Leon the privilege to explore and subjugate the island of San Juan Bautista.

On August 8, Juan Ponce de León founded the Caparra Village near the bay on the north coast, not far from the modern city of San Juan. It became the first European settlement in Puerto Rico.

Puerto Rican archeologist, Don Ricardo Alegria estimated that the island had some 30,000 inhabitants.

The Spanish authorities refused to grant to Diego Columbus (Christopher's son) privileges to all discovered land, as a results, the Crown officially appointed Juan Ponce de León governor of the island.

The first repartimiento in Puerto Rico was established, this system consisted of distributing among officials and colonists fixed numbers of Indians for wage-free and forced labor.

The Spanish Crown instituted the encomienda after several priests protested against the treatment to Indians under the repartimiento system. The terms of the new agreement specified that Spaniards were obliged to pay the Indians for their labor and to teach them the Christian religion, but they soon reduced the Indians to a condition of abject slavery, claiming that the Indians were inferior and subhuman therefore Indians were forced to work from dawn until dusk, under threat of corporal punishment and death.

In his book "La colonización de Puuerto Rico", historian Salvador Brau states that the repartimiento recorded 60,000 Indians, six years later in 1515, only 14,636 remained.

Juan Garrido is the first African identified in Puerto Rico. A free man, he arrived with the Ponce De León expedition. Garrido later participates in the colonization of Florida and serves with Spanish explorer Hernan Cortex in the conquest of Mexico.

Differences between Spaniards and Taíno Indians began and conflicts soon arose as the settlers began subjugating the Taino.

The Cacique Urayoán ordered his warriors to drown Diego Salcedo to determine whether or not the Spaniards were immortal, as they believed that Spanish colonizers had divine powers. It is told that after they drowned Diego, they watched him for several days until they were sure that he was dead.

The Taíno Indians' after learning through the drowning of Diego Salcedo, that the Spanish were mortal, revolted against Spaniards with no success. Ponce de León orders 6,000 shot on the spot in the town square survivors flee to mountains or left the island.

Diego Columbus won rights to all land discovered by his father after presenting his case to the courts in Madrid. King Ferdinand ordered Ponce de Leon to be replaced as governor by Diego Columbus. Ponce de León not wishing to serve Diego, obtained title to explore the Upper Bahamas and areas to the North.

On August 8, Pope Julius II created two dioceses in Puerto Rico, the bishop of which were all suffragans of the archbishopric of Seville. The Canon of Salamanca, Alonso Manso, was appointed bishop of the Puerto Rican diocese and took possession in 1513 - the first bishop to arrive in America.

On November 11, the Spanish Crown granted a Coat of Arms to the Island of Puerto Rico.

On September 26, the first school of advanced studies was established by Bishop Alonso Manso.

On December 27, the Burgos Law is issued, by Ferdinand II, the Catholic, of Aragón, regulated relations between Spaniards and the conquered Indians, particularly to ensure the spiritual and material welfare of the latter, who were often severely treated.

After the Taino upprising in 1511, a second settlement in San Germán was founded.

On January 27, with the decline of Taino slaves, African slaves were introduced into the island.

On July 28th, the Complementary Declaration was established. Granting natives who were clothed, Christian, and capable could live their own lives.

On March, Ponce de León sailed into the Bahamas headed toward Florida.

The Spanish Crown granted permission to Spaniards to marry native Taíno Indians.

Hernando de Peralta received permission to obtain 2 white slaves, possibly Arab or Arab Descent.

Caribe Indians attacked settlements along the banks of the Daguao and Macao rivers that had been founded by Diego Columbus.

Mona Island is officially annexed to Puerto Rico.

On July, a hurricane strikes the island, killing many Indians.

King Carlos V authorized the importation of 4,000 slaves to the Caribbean.

Government Center is moved from Villa de Caparra to the isle of San Juan.

Puerto Rico became the general headquarters of the Inquisition, after Pope Leo X declared the island the first ecclesiastical headquarters in the New World.

On July 12, King Charles I of Spain issued a royal decree collectively emancipating the remaining Taíno population. The order came into place due to the large number of Taino deaths attributed to the continuing bondage systems. A population of 60,000 was reduced to 4,000 in seven years.

Caribe Indians attacked the south coast.

The city and the Island exchanged names, and the City of San Juan Bautista de Puerto Rico became the official capital.

Casa Blanca (White House) was built. The house was owned by Ponce de León's family until the late 18th century.

The ever arriving Spaniards settlers, many of them gold-seekers, brought no women on their ships. To populate the country, the Spaniard took Indian women. With the arrival of African slaves, other elements were added. This historic intermingling has resulted in a contemporary Puerto Rico without racial problems.

Juan Ponce de León organized an expedition, setting out for Florida, where he suffered serious injuries. He took refuge on La Habana, Cuba, where he died.

On January 24, San Jose Church is founded, it is the oldest church still in use in America.

The first sugar cane processing plant is built.

The Convento de Santo Domingo (Dominican Friars Community) was built. The convent organized the first library in the island.

The first hospital was built, called Concepción, by Bishop Alonso Manso.

On their attempt to capture the Island the French attacked many settlements. On October 11, the French sacked and burned San Germán. All the other first settlements-Guánica, Sotomayor, Daguao and Loíza-had disappeared. Only the capital remained.

Sugar became the most important agricultural product.

Governor Francisco Manuel de Landó conducted the first census. The Taino population had almost vanished. Lando's census reports only 1148 Tainos remaining in the island.

On July 26, August 23, and August 31, within 6 weeks three storms strikes the island.

The construction of Santa Catalina Palace, the governors house, began. Later the name was changed to La Fortaleza.

On July 26, a hurricane strikes the island.

A month later, on August 23, another hurricane strikes the island.

On July, a hurricane strikes the island. Few weeks later, on August another hurricane strikes the island. Many slaves died.

Concerned about potential threats from European enemies and recognizing the strategic importance of Puerto Rico, Spain began constructing massive defenses around San Juan. The construction of San Felipe del Morro Castle began. The fort featured 18-foot-thick walls San Cristóbal and San Geronimo Forts also garrisoned troops, were built with the financial subsidy from the Mexican mines. Next the Spaniards constructed a wall, parts of which still survive, around the entire city.

The coconut tree was introduced to the island. The coconut is indigenous to the Indo-Malaysian region. It spread by sea currents with the average maximum distance of 3,000 miles, on which the coconut will remain afloat and still remain viable. Considering these limitations there were no or little chance of a coconut seed reach the New World. Most authorities agree that the coconut was introduced to the New World by Portuguese and Spanish traders.

The second hospital was built, called San Ildefonso.

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain decreed that the natives be as free. In reality though, the declaration of equality did not end the colonial social class system.

Juan Ponce de León remains were brought to San Juan.

The gold mines were declared depleted.

Engineers Juan de Tejada and Juan Bautista Antonelli lay out the main design for El Morro still seen today.

On November 22, Sir Francis Drake, hero of the battle of the Spanish Armada, with 26 vessels, in the company of Sir John Hawkins, tried fruitlessly to conquer the island and set San Juan city on fire (battlemap).

On June 15, the British Navy led by George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, landing in Santurce, conquered the island and held it for several months, it is forced to abandon his conquest owing to an outbreak of plague among his troops (battlemap).

Ginger replaces sugar as Puerto Rico's main cash crop.

Spain sent 400 soldiers, 46 cannon and a new governor, Alonso de Mercado, to rebuild San Juan.


19 April 1942 - History

This Act may be cited as the Thomasina E. Jordan Indian Tribes of Virginia Federal Recognition Act of 2017 .

The table of contents of this Act is as follows:

Sec. 1. Short title table of contents. Sec. 2. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978. Title I—Chickahominy Indian Tribe Sec. 101. Findings. Sec. 102. Definitions. Sec. 103. Federal recognition. Sec. 104. Membership governing documents. Sec. 105. Governing body. Sec. 106. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 107. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title II—Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division Sec. 201. Findings. Sec. 202. Definitions. Sec. 203. Federal recognition. Sec. 204. Membership governing documents. Sec. 205. Governing body. Sec. 206. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 207. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title III—Upper Mattaponi Tribe Sec. 301. Findings. Sec. 302. Definitions. Sec. 303. Federal recognition. Sec. 304. Membership governing documents. Sec. 305. Governing body. Sec. 306. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 307. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title IV—Rappahannock Tribe, Inc. Sec. 401. Findings. Sec. 402. Definitions. Sec. 403. Federal recognition. Sec. 404. Membership governing documents. Sec. 405. Governing body. Sec. 406. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 407. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title V—Monacan Indian Nation Sec. 501. Findings. Sec. 502. Definitions. Sec. 503. Federal recognition. Sec. 504. Membership governing documents. Sec. 505. Governing body. Sec. 506. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 507. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title VI—Nansemond Indian Tribe Sec. 601. Findings. Sec. 602. Definitions. Sec. 603. Federal recognition. Sec. 604. Membership governing documents. Sec. 605. Governing body. Sec. 606. Reservation of the Tribe. Sec. 607. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights. Title VII—Eminent domain Sec. 701. Limitation. 2. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978

Nothing in this Act affects the application of section 109 of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 ( 25 U.S.C. 1919 ).

I Chickahominy Indian Tribe 101. Findings

in 1607, when the English settlers set shore along the Virginia coastline, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe was one of about 30 tribes that received them

in 1614, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe entered into a treaty with Sir Thomas Dale, Governor of the Jamestown Colony, under which—

the Chickahominy Indian Tribe agreed to provide two bushels of corn per man and send warriors to protect the English and

Sir Thomas Dale agreed in return to allow the Tribe to continue to practice its own tribal governance

in 1646, a treaty was signed which forced the Chickahominy from their homeland to the area around the York Mattaponi River in present-day King William County, leading to the formation of a reservation

in 1677, following Bacon’s Rebellion, the Queen of Pamunkey signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on behalf of the Chickahominy

in 1702, the Chickahominy were forced from their reservation, which caused the loss of a land base

in 1711, the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg established a grammar school for Indians called Brafferton College

a Chickahominy child was one of the first Indians to attend Brafferton College

in 1750, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to migrate from King William County back to the area around the Chickahominy River in New Kent and Charles City Counties

in 1793, a Baptist missionary named Bradby took refuge with the Chickahominy and took a Chickahominy woman as his wife

in 1831, the names of the ancestors of the modern-day Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to appear in the Charles City County census records

in 1901, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe formed Samaria Baptist Church

from 1901 to 1935, Chickahominy men were assessed a tribal tax so that their children could receive an education

the Tribe used the proceeds from the tax to build the first Samaria Indian School, buy supplies, and pay a teacher’s salary

in 1919, C. Lee Moore, Auditor of Public Accounts for Virginia, told Chickahominy Chief O.W. Adkins that he had instructed the Commissioner of Revenue for Charles City County to record Chickahominy tribal members on the county tax rolls as Indian, and not as White or colored

during the period of 1920 through 1930, various Governors of the Commonwealth of Virginia wrote letters of introduction for Chickahominy Chiefs who had official business with Federal agencies in Washington, DC

in 1934, Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins wrote to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, requesting money to acquire land for the Chickahominy Indian Tribe’s use, to build school, medical, and library facilities and to buy tractors, implements, and seed

in 1934, John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, wrote to Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins, informing him that Congress had passed the Act of June 18, 1934 (commonly known as the Indian Reorganization Act ) ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.), but had not made the appropriation to fund the Act

in 1942, Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins wrote to John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, asking for help in getting the proper racial designation on Selective Service records for Chickahominy soldiers

in 1943, John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, asked Douglas S. Freeman, editor of the Richmond News-Leader newspaper of Richmond, Virginia, to help Virginia Indians obtain proper racial designation on birth records

Collier stated that his office could not officially intervene because it had no responsibility for the Virginia Indians, as a matter largely of historical accident , but was interested in them as descendants of the original inhabitants of the region

in 1948, the Veterans’ Education Committee of the Virginia State Board of Education approved Samaria Indian School to provide training to veterans

that school was established and run by the Chickahominy Indian Tribe

in 1950, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe purchased and donated to the Charles City County School Board land to be used to build a modern school for students of the Chickahominy and other Virginia Indian tribes

the Samaria Indian School included students in grades 1 through 8

in 1961, Senator Sam Ervin, Chairman of the Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, requested Chickahominy Chief O.O. Adkins to provide assistance in analyzing the status of the constitutional rights of Indians in your area

in 1967, the Charles City County school board closed Samaria Indian School and converted the school to a countywide primary school as a step toward full school integration of Indian and non-Indian students

in 1974, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe bought land and built a tribal center using monthly pledges from tribal members to finance the transactions

in 1983, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe was granted recognition as an Indian tribe by the Commonwealth of Virginia, along with five other Indian tribes and

in 1985, Governor Gerald Baliles was the special guest at an intertribal Thanksgiving Day dinner hosted by the Chickahominy Indian Tribe.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Chickahominy Indian Tribe.

103. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.)) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, and Henrico County, Virginia.

104. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

106. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than 3 years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

107. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

II Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division 201. Findings

in 1607, when the English settlers set shore along the Virginia coastline, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe was one of about 30 tribes that received them

in 1614, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe entered into a treaty with Sir Thomas Dale, Governor of the Jamestown Colony, under which—

the Chickahominy Indian Tribe agreed to provide two bushels of corn per man and send warriors to protect the English and

Sir Thomas Dale agreed in return to allow the Tribe to continue to practice its own tribal governance

in 1646, a treaty was signed which forced the Chickahominy from their homeland to the area around the York River in present-day King William County, leading to the formation of a reservation

in 1677, following Bacon’s Rebellion, the Queen of Pamunkey signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation on behalf of the Chickahominy

in 1702, the Chickahominy were forced from their reservation, which caused the loss of a land base

in 1711, the College of William and Mary in Williamsburg established a grammar school for Indians called Brafferton College

a Chickahominy child was one of the first Indians to attend Brafferton College

in 1750, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to migrate from King William County back to the area around the Chickahominy River in New Kent and Charles City Counties

in 1793, a Baptist missionary named Bradby took refuge with the Chickahominy and took a Chickahominy woman as his wife

in 1831, the names of the ancestors of the modern-day Chickahominy Indian Tribe began to appear in the Charles City County census records

in 1870, a census revealed an enclave of Indians in New Kent County that is believed to be the beginning of the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

other records were destroyed when the New Kent County courthouse was burned, leaving a State census as the only record covering that period

in 1901, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe formed Samaria Baptist Church

from 1901 to 1935, Chickahominy men were assessed a tribal tax so that their children could receive an education

the Tribe used the proceeds from the tax to build the first Samaria Indian School, buy supplies, and pay a teacher’s salary

in 1910, a one-room school covering grades 1 through 8 was established in New Kent County for the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

during the period of 1920 through 1921, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division began forming a tribal government

E.P. Bradby, the founder of the Tribe, was elected to be Chief

in 1922, Tsena Commocko Baptist Church was organized

in 1925, a certificate of incorporation was issued to the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division

in 1950, the one-room Indian school in New Kent County was closed and students were bused to Samaria Indian School in Charles City County

in 1967, the Chickahominy Indian Tribe and the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division lost their schools as a result of the required integration of students

during the period of 1982 through 1984, Tsena Commocko Baptist Church built a new sanctuary to accommodate church growth

in 1983 the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division was granted State recognition along with five other Virginia Indian tribes

the Virginia Council on Indians was organized as a State agency and

the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division was granted a seat on the Council

in 1988, a nonprofit organization known as the United Indians of Virginia was formed and

Chief Marvin Strongoak Bradby of the Eastern Band of the Chickahominy presently chairs the organization.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Chickahominy Indian Tribe—Eastern Division.

203. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.)) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all future services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, and Henrico County, Virginia.

204. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

206. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of New Kent County, James City County, Charles City County, or Henrico County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than 3 years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

207. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

III Upper Mattaponi Tribe 301. Findings

during the period of 1607 through 1646, the Chickahominy Indian Tribes—

lived approximately 20 miles from Jamestown and

were significantly involved in English-Indian affairs

Mattaponi Indians, who later joined the Chickahominy Indians, lived a greater distance from Jamestown

in 1646, the Chickahominy Indians moved to Mattaponi River basin, away from the English

in 1661, the Chickahominy Indians sold land at a place known as the cliffs on the Mattaponi River

in 1669, the Chickahominy Indians—

appeared in the Virginia Colony’s census of Indian bowmen and

lived in New Kent County, which included the Mattaponi River basin at that time

in 1677, the Chickahominy and Mattaponi Indians were subjects of the Queen of Pamunkey, who was a signatory to the Treaty of 1677 with the King of England

in 1683, after a Mattaponi town was attacked by Seneca Indians, the Mattaponi Indians took refuge with the Chickahominy Indians, and the history of the two groups was intertwined for many years thereafter

in 1695, the Chickahominy and Mattaponi Indians—

were assigned a reservation by the Virginia Colony and

traded land of the reservation for land at the place known as the cliffs (which, as of the date of enactment of this Act, is the Mattaponi Indian Reservation), which had been owned by the Mattaponi Indians before 1661

in 1711, a Chickahominy boy attended the Indian School at the College of William and Mary

in 1726, the Virginia Colony discontinued funding of interpreters for the Chickahominy and Mattaponi Indian Tribes

James Adams, who served as an interpreter to the Indian tribes known as of the date of enactment of this Act as the Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe and Chickahominy Indian Tribe , elected to stay with the Upper Mattaponi Indians

today, a majority of the Upper Mattaponi Indians have Adams as their surname

in 1787, Thomas Jefferson, in Notes on the Commonwealth of Virginia, mentioned the Mattaponi Indians on a reservation in King William County and said that Chickahominy Indians were blended with the Mattaponi Indians and nearby Pamunkey Indians

in 1850, the census of the United States revealed a nucleus of approximately 10 families, all ancestral to modern Upper Mattaponi Indians, living in central King William County, Virginia, approximately 10 miles from the reservation

during the period of 1853 through 1884, King William County marriage records listed Upper Mattaponis as Indians in marrying people residing on the reservation

during the period of 1884 through the present, county marriage records usually refer to Upper Mattaponis as Indians

in 1901, Smithsonian anthropologist James Mooney heard about the Upper Mattaponi Indians but did not visit them

in 1928, University of Pennsylvania anthropologist Frank Speck published a book on modern Virginia Indians with a section on the Upper Mattaponis

from 1929 until 1930, the leadership of the Upper Mattaponi Indians opposed the use of a colored designation in the 1930 United States census and won a compromise in which the Indian ancestry of the Upper Mattaponis was recorded but questioned

during the period of 1942 through 1945—

the leadership of the Upper Mattaponi Indians, with the help of Frank Speck and others, fought against the induction of young men of the Tribe into colored units in the Armed Forces of the United States and

a tribal roll for the Upper Mattaponi Indians was compiled

from 1945 to 1946, negotiations took place to admit some of the young people of the Upper Mattaponi to high schools for Federal Indians (especially at Cherokee) because no high school coursework was available for Indians in Virginia schools and

in 1983, the Upper Mattaponi Indians applied for and won State recognition as an Indian tribe.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Upper Mattaponi Tribe.

303. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.)) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area within 25 miles of the Sharon Indian School at 13383 King William Road, King William County, Virginia.

304. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

306. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King William County, Caroline County, Hanover County, King and Queen County, and New Kent County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King William County, Caroline County, Hanover County, King and Queen County, and New Kent County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than 3 years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

307. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

IV Rappahannock Tribe, Inc. 401. Findings

during the initial months after Virginia was settled, the Rappahannock Indians had three encounters with Captain John Smith

the first encounter occurred when the Rappahannock weroance (headman)—

traveled to Quiyocohannock (a principal town across the James River from Jamestown), where he met with Smith to determine whether Smith had been the great man who had previously sailed into the Rappahannock River, killed a Rappahannock weroance, and kidnapped Rappahannock people and

determined that Smith was too short to be that great man

on a second meeting, during John Smith’s captivity (December 16, 1607, to January 8, 1608), Smith was taken to the Rappahannock principal village to show the people that Smith was not the great man

a third meeting took place during Smith’s exploration of the Chesapeake Bay (July to September 1608), when, after the Moraughtacund Indians had stolen three women from the Rappahannock King, Smith was prevailed upon to facilitate a peaceful truce between the Rappahannock and the Moraughtacund Indians

in the settlement, Smith had the two Indian tribes meet on the spot of their first fight

when it was established that both groups wanted peace, Smith told the Rappahannock King to select which of the three stolen women he wanted

the Moraughtacund King was given second choice among the two remaining women, and Mosco, a Wighcocomoco (on the Potomac River) guide, was given the third woman

in 1645, Captain William Claiborne tried unsuccessfully to establish treaty relations with the Rappahannocks, as the Rappahannocks had not participated in the Pamunkey-led uprising in 1644, and the English wanted to treat with the Rappahannocks or any other Indians not in amity with Opechancanough, concerning serving the county against the Pamunkeys

in April 1651, the Rappahannocks conveyed a tract of land to an English settler, Colonel Morre Fauntleroy

the deed for the conveyance was signed by Accopatough, weroance of the Rappahannock Indians

in September 1653, Lancaster County signed a treaty with Rappahannock Indians, the terms of which treaty—

gave Rappahannocks the rights of Englishmen in the county court and

attempted to make the Rappahannocks more accountable under English law

in September 1653, Lancaster County defined and marked the bounds of its Indian settlements

according to the Lancaster clerk of court, the tribe called the great Rappahannocks lived on the Rappahannock Creek just across the river above Tappahannock

in September 1656, (Old) Rappahannock County (which, as of the date of enactment of this Act, is comprised of Richmond and Essex Counties, Virginia) signed a treaty with Rappahannock Indians that—

mirrored the Lancaster County treaty from 1653 and

Rappahannocks were to be rewarded, in Roanoke, for returning English fugitives and

the English encouraged the Rappahannocks to send their children to live among the English as servants, who the English promised would be well-treated

in 1658, the Virginia Assembly revised a 1652 Act stating that there be no grants of land to any Englishman whatsoever de futuro until the Indians be first served with the proportion of 50 acres of land for each bowman

in 1669, the colony conducted a census of Virginia Indians

as of the date of that census—

the majority of the Rappahannocks were residing at their hunting village on the north side of the Mattaponi River and

at the time of the visit, census-takers were counting only the Indian tribes along the rivers, which explains why only 30 Rappahannock bowmen were counted on that river

the Rappahannocks used the hunting village on the north side of the Mattaponi River as their primary residence until the Rappahannocks were removed in 1684

in May 1677, the Treaty of Middle Plantation was signed with England

the Pamunkey Queen Cockacoeske signed on behalf of the Rappahannocks, who were supposed to be her tributaries , but before the treaty could be ratified, the Queen of Pamunkey complained to the Virginia Colonial Council that she was having trouble with Rappahannocks and Chickahominies, supposedly tributaries of hers

in November 1682, the Virginia Colonial Council established a reservation for the Rappahannock Indians of 3,474 acres about the town where they dwelt

the Rappahannock town was the hunting village on the north side of the Mattaponi River, where the Rappahannocks had lived throughout the 1670s

the acreage allotment of the reservation was based on the 1658 Indian land act, which translates into a bowman population of 70, or an approximate total Rappahannock population of 350

in 1683, following raids by Iroquoian warriors on both Indian and English settlements, the Virginia Colonial Council ordered the Rap­pa­han­nocks to leave their reservation and unite with the Nanzatico Indians at Nanzatico Indian Town, which was located across and up the Rappahannock River some 30 miles

between 1687 and 1699, the Rap­pa­han­nocks migrated out of Nanzatico, returning to the south side of the Rappahannock River at Portobacco Indian Town

in 1706, by order of Essex County, Lieutenant Richard Covington escorted the Por­to­bac­cos and Rappahannocks out of Portobacco Indian Town, out of Essex County, and into King and Queen County where they settled along the ridgeline between the Rappahannock and Mattaponi Rivers, the site of their ancient hunting village and 1682 reservation

during the 1760s, three Rappahannock girls were raised on Thomas Nelson’s Bleak Hill Plantation in King William County

one married a Saunders man

one married a Johnson man and

one had two children, Edmund and Carter Nelson, fathered by Thomas Cary Nelson

in the 19th century, those Saunders, Johnson, and Nelson families are among the core Rappahannock families from which the modern Tribe traces its descent

in 1819 and 1820, Edward Bird, John Bird (and his wife), Carter Nelson, Edmund Nelson, and Carter Spurlock (all Rappahannock ancestors) were listed on the tax roles of King and Queen County and taxed at the county poor rate

Edmund Bird was added to the tax roles in 1821

those tax records are significant documentation because the great majority of pre-1864 records for King and Queen County were destroyed by fire

beginning in 1819, and continuing through the 1880s, there was a solid Rappahannock presence in the membership at Upper Essex Baptist Church

that was the first instance of conversion to Christianity by at least some Rappahannock Indians

while 26 identifiable and traceable Rappahannock surnames appear on the pre-1863 membership list, and 28 were listed on the 1863 membership roster, the number of surnames listed had declined to 12 in 1878 and had risen only slightly to 14 by 1888

a reason for the decline is that in 1870, a Methodist circuit rider, Joseph Mastin, secured funds to purchase land and construct St. Stephens Baptist Church for the Rappahannocks living nearby in Caroline County

Mastin referred to the Rappahannocks during the period of 1850 to 1870 as Indians, having a great need for moral and Christian guidance

St. Stephens was the dominant tribal church until the Rappahannock Indian Baptist Church was established in 1964

at both churches, the core Rappahannock family names of Bird, Clarke, Fortune, Johnson, Nelson, Parker, and Richardson predominate

during the early 1900s, James Mooney, noted anthropologist, maintained correspondence with the Rappahannocks, surveying them and instructing them on how to formalize their tribal government

in November 1920, Speck visited the Rappahannocks and assisted them in organizing the fight for their sovereign rights

in 1921, the Rappahannocks were granted a charter from the Commonwealth of Virginia formalizing their tribal government

Speck began a professional relationship with the Tribe that would last more than 30 years and document Rappahannock history and traditions as never before

in April 1921, Rappahannock Chief George Nelson asked the Governor of Virginia, Westmoreland Davis, to forward a proclamation to the President of the United States, along with an appended list of tribal members and a handwritten copy of the proclamation itself

the letter concerned Indian freedom of speech and assembly nationwide

in 1922, the Rappahannocks established a formal school at Lloyds, Essex County, Virginia

prior to establishment of the school, Rappahannock children were taught by a tribal member in Central Point, Caroline County, Virginia

in December 1923, Rappahannock Chief George Nelson testified before Congress appealing for a $50,000 appropriation to establish an Indian school in Virginia

in 1930, the Rappahannocks were engaged in an ongoing dispute with the Commonwealth of Virginia and the United States Census Bureau about their classification in the 1930 Federal census

in January 1930, Rappahannock Chief Otho S. Nelson wrote to Leon Truesdell, Chief Statistician of the United States Census Bureau, asking that the 218 enrolled Rappahannocks be listed as Indians

in February 1930, Truesdell replied to Nelson saying that special instructions were being given about classifying Indians

in April 1930, Nelson wrote to William M. Steuart at the Census Bureau asking about the enumerators’ failure to classify his people as Indians, saying that enumerators had not asked the question about race when they interviewed his people

in a followup letter to Truesdell, Nelson reported that the enumerators were flatly denying his people’s request to be listed as Indians and that the race question was completely avoided during interviews

the Rappahannocks had spoken with Caroline and Essex County enumerators, and with John M.W. Green at that point, without success

Nelson asked Truesdell to list people as Indians if he sent a list of members

the matter was settled by William Steuart, who concluded that the Bureau’s rule was that people of Indian descent could be classified as Indian only if Indian blood predominated and Indian identity was accepted in the local community

the Virginia Vital Statistics Bureau classed all nonreservation Indians as Negro , and it failed to see why an exception should be made for the Rappahannocks

therefore, in 1925, the Indian Rights Association took on the Rappahannock case to assist the Rappahannocks in fighting for their recognition and rights as an Indian tribe

during the Second World War, the Pamunkeys, Mattaponis, Chickahominies, and Rap­pa­han­nocks had to fight the draft boards with respect to their racial identities

the Virginia Vital Statistics Bureau insisted that certain Indian draftees be inducted into Negro units

finally, three Rappahannocks were convicted of violating the Federal draft laws and, after spending time in a Federal prison, were granted conscientious objector status and served out the remainder of the war working in military hospitals

in 1943, Frank Speck noted that there were approximately 25 communities of Indians left in the Eastern United States that were entitled to Indian classification, including the Rappahannocks

in the 1940s, Leon Truesdell, Chief Statistician, of the United States Census Bureau, listed 118 members in the Rappahannock Tribe in the Indian population of Virginia

on April 25, 1940, the Office of Indian Affairs of the Department of the Interior included the Rappahannocks on a list of Indian tribes classified by State and by agency

in 1948, the Smithsonian Institution Annual Report included an article by William Harlen Gilbert entitled, Surviving Indian Groups of the Eastern United States , which included and described the Rappahannock Tribe

in the late 1940s and early 1950s, the Rappahannocks operated a school at Indian Neck

the State agreed to pay a tribal teacher to teach 10 students bused by King and Queen County to Sharon Indian School in King William County, Virginia

in 1965, Rappahannock students entered Marriott High School (a White public school) by Executive order of the Governor of Virginia

in 1972, the Rappahannocks worked with the Coalition of Eastern Native Americans to fight for Federal recognition

in 1979, the Coalition established a pottery and artisans company, operating with other Virginia tribes

in 1980, the Rappahannocks received funding through the Administration for Native Americans of the Department of Health and Human Services to develop an economic program for the Tribe and

in 1983, the Rappahannocks received State recognition as an Indian tribe.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the organization possessing the legal name Rappahannock Tribe, Inc.

The term Tribe does not include any other Indian tribe, subtribe, band, or splinter group the members of which represent themselves as Rappahannock Indians.

403. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.)) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of King and Queen County, Caroline County, Essex County, and King William County, Virginia.

404. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

406. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King and Queen County, Stafford County, Spotsylvania County, Richmond County, Essex County, and Caroline County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of King and Queen County, Richmond County, Lancaster County, King George County, Essex County, Caroline County, New Kent County, King William County, and James City County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than 3 years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

407. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

V Monacan Indian Nation 501. Findings

in 1677, the Monacan Tribe signed the Treaty of Middle Plantation between Charles II of England and 12 Indian Kings and Chief Men

in 1722, in the Treaty of Albany, Governor Spotswood negotiated to save the Virginia Indians from extinction at the hands of the Iroquois

specifically mentioned in the negotiations were the Monacan tribes of the Totero (Tutelo), Saponi, Ocheneeches (Occaneechi), Stengenocks, and Meipontskys

in 1790, the first national census recorded Benjamin Evans and Robert Johns, both ancestors of the present Monacan community, listed as white with mulatto children

in 1782, tax records also began for those families

in 1850, the United States census recorded 29 families, mostly large, with Monacan surnames, the members of which are genealogically related to the present community

in 1870, a log structure was built at the Bear Mountain Indian Mission

in 1908, the structure became an Episcopal Mission and, as of the date of enactment of this Act, the structure is listed as a landmark on the National Register of Historic Places

in 1920, 304 Amherst Indians were identified in the United States census

from 1930 through 1931, numerous letters from Monacans to the Bureau of the Census resulted from the decision of Dr. Walter Plecker, former head of the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Commonwealth of Virginia, not to allow Indians to register as Indians for the 1930 census

the Monacans eventually succeeded in being allowed to claim their race, albeit with an asterisk attached to a note from Dr. Plecker stating that there were no Indians in Virginia

in 1947, D’Arcy McNickle, a Salish Indian, saw some of the children at the Amherst Mission and requested that the Cherokee Agency visit them because they appeared to be Indian

that letter was forwarded to the Department of the Interior, Office of Indian Affairs, Chicago, Illinois

Chief Jarrett Blythe of the Eastern Band of Cherokee did visit the Mission and wrote that he would be willing to accept these children in the Cherokee school

in 1979, a Federal Coalition of Eastern Native Americans established the entity known as Monacan Co-operative Pottery at the Amherst Mission

some important pieces were produced at Monacan Co-operative Pottery, including a piece that was sold to the Smithsonian Institution

the Mattaponi-Pamunkey-Monacan Consortium, established in 1981, has since been organized as a nonprofit corporation that serves as a vehicle to obtain funds for those Indian tribes from the Department of Labor under Native American programs

in 1989, the Monacan Tribe was recognized by the Commonwealth of Virginia, which enabled the Tribe to apply for grants and participate in other programs and

in 1993, the Monacan Tribe received tax-exempt status as a nonprofit corporation from the Internal Revenue Service.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Monacan Indian Nation.

503. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.)) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of all land within 25 miles from the center of Amherst, Virginia.

504. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

506. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of Amherst County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of Amherst County, Virginia, and those parcels in Rockbridge County, Virginia (subject to the consent of the local unit of government), owned by Mr. J. Poole, described as East 731 Sandbridge (encompassing approximately 4.74 acres) and East 731 (encompassing approximately 5.12 acres).

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than 3 years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

507. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

VI Nansemond Indian Tribe 601. Findings

from 1607 until 1646, Nansemond Indians—

lived approximately 30 miles from Jamestown and

were significantly involved in English-Indian affairs

after 1646, there were two sections of Nansemonds in communication with each other, the Christianized Nansemonds in Norfolk County, who lived as citizens, and the traditionalist Nansemonds, who lived further west

in 1638, according to an entry in a 17th century sermon book still owned by the Chief’s family, a Norfolk County Englishman married a Nan­se­mond woman

that man and woman are lineal ancestors of all of members of the Nansemond Indian tribe alive as of the date of enactment of this Act, as are some of the traditionalist Nansemonds

in 1669, the two Nansemond sections appeared in Virginia Colony’s census of Indian bow­men

in 1677, Nansemond Indians were signatories to the Treaty of 1677 with the King of England

in 1700 and 1704, the Nansemonds and other Virginia Indian tribes were prevented by Virginia Colony from making a separate peace with the Iroquois

Virginia represented those Indian tribes in the final Treaty of Albany, 1722

in 1711, a Nansemond boy attended the Indian School at the College of William and Mary

in 1727, Norfolk County granted William Bass and his kinsmen the Indian privileges of clearing swamp land and bearing arms (which privileges were forbidden to other non-Whites) because of their Nansemond ancestry, which meant that Bass and his kinsmen were original inhabitants of that land

in 1742, Norfolk County issued a certificate of Nansemond descent to William Bass

from the 1740s to the 1790s, the traditionalist section of the Nansemond tribe, 40 miles west of the Christianized Nansemonds, was dealing with reservation land

the last surviving members of that section sold out in 1792 with the permission of the Commonwealth of Virginia

in 1797, Norfolk County issued a certificate stating that William Bass was of Indian and English descent, and that his Indian line of ancestry ran directly back to the early 18th century elder in a traditionalist section of Nansemonds on the reservation

in 1833, Virginia enacted a law enabling people of European and Indian descent to obtain a special certificate of ancestry

the law originated from the county in which Nansemonds lived, and mostly Nansemonds, with a few people from other counties, took advantage of the new law

a Methodist mission established around 1850 for Nansemonds is currently a standard Methodist congregation with Nansemond members

in 1901, Smithsonian anthropologist James Mooney—

visited the Nansemonds and

completed a tribal census that counted 61 households and was later published

in 1922, Nansemonds were given a special Indian school in the segregated school system of Norfolk County

the school survived only a few years

in 1928, University of Pennsylvania anthropologist Frank Speck published a book on modern Virginia Indians that included a section on the Nansemonds and

the Nansemonds were organized formally, with elected officers, in 1984, and later applied for and received State recognition.

The term Secretary means the Secretary of the Interior.

The term tribal member means—

an individual who is an enrolled member of the Tribe as of the date of enactment of this Act and

an individual who has been placed on the membership rolls of the Tribe in accordance with this title.

The term Tribe means the Nansemond Indian Tribe.

603. Federal recognition (a) Federal Recognition

Federal recognition is extended to the Tribe.

All laws (including regulations) of the United States of general applicability to Indians or nations, Indian tribes, or bands of Indians (including the Act of June 18, 1934 ( 25 U.S.C. 461 et seq.)) that are not inconsistent with this title shall be applicable to the Tribe and tribal members.

(b) Federal Services and Benefits

On and after the date of enactment of this Act, the Tribe and tribal members shall be eligible for all services and benefits provided by the Federal Government to federally recognized Indian tribes without regard to the existence of a reservation for the Tribe.

For the purpose of the delivery of Federal services to tribal members, the service area of the Tribe shall be considered to be the area comprised of the cities of Chesapeake, Hampton, Newport News, Norfolk, Portsmouth, Suffolk, and Virginia Beach, Virginia.

604. Membership governing documents

The membership roll and governing documents of the Tribe shall be the most recent membership roll and governing documents, respectively, submitted by the Tribe to the Secretary before the date of enactment of this Act.

The governing body of the Tribe shall be—

the governing body of the Tribe in place as of the date of enactment of this Act or

any subsequent governing body elected in accordance with the election procedures specified in the governing documents of the Tribe.

606. Reservation of the Tribe (a) In general

Upon the request of the Tribe, the Secretary of the Interior—

shall take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe that was acquired by the Tribe on or before January 1, 2007, if such lands are located within the boundaries of the city of Suffolk, the city of Chesapeake, or Isle of Wight County, Virginia and

may take into trust for the benefit of the Tribe any land held in fee by the Tribe, if such lands are located within the boundaries of the city of Suffolk, the city of Chesapeake, or Isle of Wight County, Virginia.

(b) Deadline for determination

The Secretary shall make a final written determination not later than 3 years of the date which the Tribe submits a request for land to be taken into trust under subsection (a)(2) and shall immediately make that determination available to the Tribe.

Any land taken into trust for the benefit of the Tribe pursuant to this paragraph shall, upon request of the Tribe, be considered part of the reservation of the Tribe.

The Tribe may not conduct gaming activities as a matter of claimed inherent authority or under the authority of any Federal law, including the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act ( 25 U.S.C. 2701 et seq.) or under any regulations thereunder promulgated by the Secretary or the National Indian Gaming Commission.

607. Hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, and water rights

Nothing in this title expands, reduces, or affects in any manner any hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering, or water rights of the Tribe and members of the Tribe.

VII Eminent domain 701. Limitation

Eminent domain may not be used to acquire lands in fee or in trust for an Indian tribe recognized under this Act.


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