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The Need of the Anglo Israel Truth
During times of national turmoil, God always raises up men of equal strength and courage to meet the demands of the time. The Need of the Anglo Israel Truth

By: Dr. Mordecai F. Ham
Introduction By Charles A. Jennings

During times of national turmoil, God always raises up men of equal strength and courage to meet the demands of the time. One such time was the first half of the 20th century and one such man was Mordecai Fowler Ham. He was born on April 2, 1877 in Scottsville, Kentucky, into the home of a seventh generation Baptist preacher. He attended Ogden College in Bowling Green and took private tutoring lessons in law, but was too young to take the bar exam. After college he worked as a traveling salesman for a grocery company and a Chicago photo enlarging firm.
Even as a young boy, he always had a consciousness of and a firm belief in the Lord Jesus Christ. While in business, he began to feel the call of God to preach the Gospel. In July 1900, just before he gave up his secular career and entered the ministry, he married Bessie Simmons. He preached his first sermon one week later. From his first revival at the Mt. Gilead Baptist Church in 1901, he entered an evangelistic ministry that would impact the lives of millions of Americans.
Rev. Ham held revival meetings across the nation which were attended by thousands. He was well known for his boldness in the pulpit when preaching against both individual sins and public corruption. He would single out the most well known sinners in town for his personal evangelism. Throughout his preaching career he endured much opposition, receiving threats, bodily assaults and police arrests.
In December 1905 his wife died of cerebral meningitis. For several months he took an overseas tour to help him recover from his grief. In June 1908 he married Annie Laurie Smith and they were blessed with three daughters. He served as pastor of the First Baptist Church of Oklahoma City from 1927-1929 and then returned to full time evangelism. From 1929 to 1941 he held sixty-one meetings in fifteen states. He claimed that there were 168,550 converts to Christ throughout his ministry. Many prominent and later influential people were converted during his ministry, such as Wyatt Larimore, ‘king’ of the local Chattanooga underworld in the 1932 crusade Otto Sutton, a wild and wicked heavyweight fighter from Little Rock, AR in the January 1933 Crusade and Billy Graham, the internationally known evangelist, with his friend Grady Wilson in the November 1935 Charlotte, North Carolina crusade. It is reported that following the Macon, GA crusade that thirteen brothels closed because all the prostitutes were converted to Christ.
In 1935, Bob Jones University conferred upon him an Honorary Doctorate of Divinity degree and in 1936 he was elected the president of the International Association of Christian Evangelists. In 1940, Dr. Ham started a radio ministry on the Mutual Broadcasting Network of fifty stations and made personal appearances in over 600 American cities. In June 1947, he published a paper known as "The Old Kentucky Home Revivalist" and later authored several books which included. The Second Coming of Christ, Believing a Lie, The Sabbath Question and The Jews. After a long outstanding ministry of Christian evangelism, Dr. Ham passed away on November 1, 1961 in Louisville, Kentucky.
E ven though Dr. Ham is still remembered and revered as one of America’s most prominent and greatest evangelists, his stand against Communism and Zionism is quietly ignored. In 1925, he, along with one hundred other fundamentalists answered the call of Dr. Gerald B. Winrod to meet in Salina, Kansas and to establish the Defenders of the Christian Faith organization. Among the official speakers for the organization were, Mordecai Ham, Paul Rader and Charles E. Fuller. They tenaciously defended the historical Christian faith and fought against the schemes of the Communists and Zionists. As a result, this earned them the label of being ‘antisemitic’ and controversial.
Dr. Ham also took a stand in favor of the Christian Anglo-Israel message of the Bible. The following article is an address given by him at the Seventh Annual Conference of the British Israel World Federation on October 4, 1926. This is a reprint from the August 7, 1954 edition of The National Message magazine.
When Dr. Ham mentions "this message" or "this truth" in the following article, he is referring to the Christian Anglo-Israel message which the British Israel World Federation so strongly advocates.
I am going to give you some of the reasons why I believe that the world is in need of this message.
Carrying Out A Divine Purpose
I am going to quote from the first chapter of Deuteronomy, verses 6-8:
"The Lord our God spake unto us in Horeb, saying, Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount: turn you, and take your journey, and go to the mount of the Amorites, and unto all the places nigh there unto, in the plain, in the hills, and in the vale, and in the south, and by the sea side, to the land of the Canaanites, and unto Lebanon, unto the great river, the river Euphrates. Behold, I have set the land before you: go in and possess the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, to give unto them and to their seed after them."
These words were spoken to a people who had just been emancipated from slavery, who had never known anything but the brick kilns of Egypt, and the rigours of bondage who at this time sat under the shades of Horeb, enjoying, not only the shade, but the sweet cool water that flowed in from that mountain and who were fed with manna from the hand of God. Free from all terror, they sat there enjoying their freedom. Then God said, "Ye have dwelt long enough in this mount". God did not save Israel out of Egypt just to make pets of them, and to lavish His love upon them, to the exclusion of the rest of the world. Of course, He had a divine purpose, and that purpose down through the ages He has been carrying out. And based upon that, we might study four things that God had in view:
He saved this people, He emancipated them, first of all, to reveal to them the great truth: "Hear, O Israel The Lord our God is one Lord." He wanted to give to the world a knowledge of the one and only true God."
The next thing He wanted to show to the world was the beauty of the divine government, "Happy is that people, whose God is Jehovah".
Then He wanted, through them, as the custodians of His divine oracles, to carry the truth to all the world.
And, last of all, to give to the world the promised Savior, the King of Kings, and Lord of Lords.
The World Needs This Truth
Now with this I wish to say, first of all, that the world needs the Truth that you are now putting out, in order that it might have restored to it confidence in governments. The foundations of governments are trembling everywhere. People, because of subtle propaganda, have lost faith in the powers that be, and especially in America we are suffering at this time from the loss of confidence in rulers, in established governments. Everywhere we hear that governments must all be destroyed, and that we must bring in a new order that everything now existing is wrong.
Suppose, for instance, that all people become obsessed with that idea, that all established authority and all government are wrong, then the result would be that there would be no appeal to patriotism, there would be no enlisting in the hour of trouble, as you had in your last great war. There would be nothing but a chaotic state of society, and such distress and misery as we have never had on this earth before would be the result. The moment that everyone was convinced that the present governments are all of Satan, and of his rule and dominion, and that they are under his power, the only result would be chaos and war and sorrow. We need somehow to restore the confidence of the people of this world in the fact that government is of God. And, as I understand it, I do not see anything that can better serve in this respect than the Anglo Israel gospel, and the Truth that you are presenting.
Then the world needs this truth to enlighten the intelligencer. What do I mean by intelligencer? It is that agitated man without intelligence. We are told that we have come from a lower order of animal life, and the child of today is traced back through some inferior creature down into the cave or to the scum of a drake pond, or somewhere else and the consciousness of God is being wiped out. Recently a poll was taken of our college boys and girls in the States, and it was found that only one out of ten had not forgotten to go to church when they returned home. The creation of everything is accounted for without God. They will give the theory of evolution, or something of that kind. We need something that is definite.
Divine Plan Behind History
Our histories have assumed that which is not true they have begun with a falsehood. And it certainly would appeal to any man’s intelligence if he could discover that back of all history is the divine programme and plan. You can trace back practically everything today. If men were but enlightened they would find that God, the great Builder, had a well-defined programme when He started colonizing in this world. Just as there is the architect, then someone to excavate, another to put the foundation, and another to build up the structure, so in God’s great plan. When God laid His hand upon Abraham, and called him out of the land, He had His divine programme, and once you see it, history is interpreted for you, and the great mysteries which our scholars today are trying to account for by speculation and uncertainties will become well-defined, intelligent programmes behind which we can read the words, "In the beginning God". Read and see how God planned that the sons of Isaac should each give to the world certain things.
Needed Unity of our Christian Nations
Then, again, the world needs the Anglo Israel Truth in order that it may ensure the amity and the unity of the great Anglo-Saxon or Christian nations. I was impressed with this fact when, a few weeks ago, I visited the territory where the men who first came from this country came with the idea that, under God, they were doing something. And, as Benjamin Franklin said, when they had wrangled for several days, trying to formulate a constitution without coming to any agreement, "It seems strange that such intelligent men as you are should ever have undertaken such a tremendous task without calling upon the Supreme Being". So they knelt and prayed, and immediately order and harmony were restored. They like you, felt it was under God they were working.
And everywhere you go in Anglo-Saxondom today, you can see the order, the programme, the laws, the institutions from the circuit judge, on through our entire governmental institutions, you can see that they are based upon the great foundation that God Himself laid down. For what we have with us today, we are bound to give credit to God and His Book.
Britain and America Inseparable
But there is mischief abroad today. There is an effort being made to destroy the amity and the unity between Britain and America. Let me say this to you: Britain and America have never been separated. It is the work of the enemy that is seeking to bring about embarrassing conditions between the two countries. And I know of no truth today that can so restore confidence as this Anglo Israel Truth. Because in my country, in the South land of America, you find the old Anglo-Saxon Puritan blood in the ascendancy. We still believe this Book, in spite of all the attacks that are being made upon it.
This Truth Stimulates Missionary Zeal
We also need this Truth to stimulate missionary zeal. Study God’s Word and note the order. First possession then practice. God never gives an exhortation, and never outlines for us a practice, or gives us a task to do, until He has told us what we are, and who we are. Read that Ephesian Epistle: "In Him" appears thirty times, perhaps, in the first chapter. Then He comes down and tells us who we are, and where we are, and then He tells us how we are. When we are made to feel that we have been appointed of God to carry to the world His Truth, it brings with it a feeling of tremendous responsibility, and also such a sense of power that we cannot resist.
How we have in a measure fulfilled our task can be seen when we know that out of 23,000 missionaries that have gone out into this world, over 19,000 of them have gone from Britain and America. The execution of that noble work in obedience to Christ’s commission has had a wholesome effect upon us. I could better illustrate it than I could establish its truth by argument:
A few years ago, on the shores of Lake Michigan, a steamer was sighted battling with the storms. It was foundering, and it seemed that death was almost certain. Efforts had been made by the little life-saving crew, but they had been a failure. After a while there came down to the shore a little woman, and walking up to her big son, she said ‘remember when you accepted this position, I told you of its responsibility. Have you done your level best? Go, and mother will pray for you’. And, against the persuasion and the advice of his fellows, he leapt into the boat, and battled with the storm. After a while they saw his boat coming back, and when he got near enough to the shore he began to shout, ‘I have saved my brother’.
To the storm-distressed nations we have brought salvation, and have brought blessing to our own people.
This Truth Restores Faith In The Bible
Last of all, the world needs this Truth, and we need it to give us back our Bible. For years I have seen the Book going from us, taken gradually from us by people who profess to believe it. In that subtle way they have interpreted this passage and that, until finally we have concluded that the Book, after all, is only a bit of ancient literature. How different it is when once we see that, from the first, not one single promise that God made to our fathers has failed, and not one single prophecy.
God knows the future, and this is God’s Book, and we need this Book given back to us, and this Truth which rejects none of it, can show the fulfillment of each promise and each prophecy. And let me say without any fear of being misunderstood that, busy in the work as I have been. I have read my Bible more since this Truth got hold of me than I ever did in the same length of time before.
Anglo Israel Stands The Great Test Of Truth
Are these men who cast doubt on the Bible men of experience, of learning, or are they ignorant men? Let me say this: there is one test by which to try them, I John 4:3:
"And every spirit that confesseth not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh is not of God: and this is that spirit of antichrist, whereof ye have heard that it should come and even now already is it in the world".
And again in the Second Epistle:
"For many deceivers are entered into the world, who confess not that Jesus Christ is come in the flesh. This is a deceiver and an antichrist" (v. 7).
Everyone that does not admit that Christ has come in the flesh is of the antichrist. That is a double test. When people would have me believe that anything is from the antichrist, I put that test, and it settles the question for me. Now I hold in my hand the Bible containing some of the most ancient, and the most modern, of all utterances that men have ever come in possession of, written by different men, under different civilizations, at different times, in different environments, from the kings palace to the shepherd’s tent. There are no contradictions each is complementary to the other. I made this statement once, and have made it again and again in the university chapels of our land:
"I challenge you to show one single historical mistake, one single scientific blunder in this great Book–a magnificent temple of Truth, containing the utterances of the noblest characters that this old world has ever heard of."
And as President Wilson said when our boys left for the Front: "Boys, read the Bible the world’s greatest heroes and characters are there. Get acquainted with them."
‘Isaiah Who Talks Of Israel In The Isles’
I pass through the Judges, and into the Psalms. I step down awhile, and hear King David playing with his harp, and listen to the sacred music, and the precious words that express the deepest secrets of my soul. I not only listen to the loftiest music and the rarest poetry, but I pass on to listen to the wisdom of Solomon and then I pass on to hearken to the glorious strains of Isaiah, who talks of Israel in the isles then to the minor tones of Jeremiah.
‘Hail The Power Of Jesus Name’
I not only listen to this grand orchestra, but I pass on and sit down in the observatory there with Daniel. I see the rise and fall of kings and empires and kingdoms. Then through each of the minor prophets who with their telescopes, search the heavens for the star of Bethlehem. I travel on through the New Testament, carried, as it were, into the heavenlies, until in the end I see the King of kings and Lord of lords whether it be what Ezekiel saw, or that which is pictured in the four Gospels. He is ever the same. And in the final Book of Revelation I see the capstone. There we see the redeemed hosts, singing, "All hail the power of Jesus’ Name". And some day you and I, the one great flock of King Jesus, will march into our full inheritance.
(The Glastonbury Hymn)
And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England’s mountain green?
And was the Holy Lamb of God
On England’s pleasant pasture seen?
And did the Countenance Divine
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here
Among those dark Satanic mills?
Bring me my bow of burning gold!
Bring me my arrows of desire!
Bring me my spear! O clouds unfold!
Bring me my chariot of fire!
I will not cease from mental fight,
Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand,
Til we have built Jerusalem
In England’s green and pleasant land.
By William Blake
"God hath not cast away His people which He foreknew."
Romans 11:2
"The Apostles passed beyond the ocean to the Isles called the Britannic Isles."
Eusebius (265-340 A.D.) Church Historian
"We certainly know that Christ the true son, afforded His light, the knowledge of His precepts, to our Island in the last year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar."
Gildas (516-570 A.D.) British Historian




What is the meaning of the Parable of the Sower?

The Parable of the Sower (also known as the Parable of the Four Soils) is found in Matthew 13:3-9 Mark 4:2-9 and Luke 8:4-8. After presenting this parable to the multitude, Jesus interprets it for His disciples in Matthew 13:18-23 Mark 4:13-20 and Luke 8:11-15.

The Parable of the Sower concerns a sower who scatters seed, which falls on four different types of ground. The hard ground “by the way side” prevents the seed from sprouting at all, and the seed becomes nothing more than bird food. The stony ground provides enough soil for the seeds to germinate and begin to grow, but because there is “no deepness of earth,” the plants do not take root and are soon withered in the sun. The thorny ground allows the seed to grow, but the competing thorns choke the life out of the beneficial plants. The good ground receives the seed and produces much fruit.

Jesus’ explanation of the Parable of the Sower highlights four different responses to the gospel. The seed is “the word of the kingdom.” The hard ground represents someone who is hardened by sin he hears but does not understand the Word, and Satan plucks the message away, keeping the heart dull and preventing the Word from making an impression. The stony ground pictures a man who professes delight with the Word however, his heart is not changed, and when trouble arises, his so-called faith quickly disappears. The thorny ground depicts one who seems to receive the Word, but whose heart is full of riches, pleasures, and lusts the things of this world take his time and attention away from the Word, and he ends up having no time for it. The good ground portrays the one who hears, understands, and receives the Word—and then allows the Word to accomplish its result in his life. The man represented by the “good ground” is the only one of the four who is truly saved, because salvation’s proof is fruit (Matthew 3:7-8 7:15-20).

To summarize the point of the Parable of the Sower: “A man’s reception of God’s Word is determined by the condition of his heart.” A secondary lesson would be “Salvation is more than a superficial, albeit joyful, hearing of the gospel. Someone who is truly saved will go on to prove it.” May our faith and our lives exemplify the "good soil" in the Parable of the Sower.

The Navigators ® is an international, interdenominational Christian ministry established in 1933. Our motto is, "To know Christ, make Him known, and help others do the same ® ." We do this through building Life-to-Life ® mentoring—or discipling—relationships among Christ followers, equipping them to make an impact on the people around them for God's glory.

Robert Coleman’s classic, The Master Plan of Evangelism, highlights the central strategy of Jesus’ disciplemaking: He invested in the &hellip Continue Reading

Evidence, pseudoscience, and the issues regarding the "historical" Jesus [ edit ]

Getting context [ edit ]

When discussing the quality of the evidence for a historical Jesus Christ one runs headlong into the matter of how he was historical, which inevitably results in the matter being pulled into the tar baby known as the Jesus Myth. As stated above this article is NOT on the Jesus Myth (which has included concepts of a historical Jesus) but about the evidence and its quality.

There is a lot of confirmation bias and pseudoscience throughout the range of the historicity debate (from totally fictional to the Gospels are historical documents), where the idea of what Jesus was is used to drive every aspect of the research to a predestined conclusion. ⎩] The sad thing (in cases not concerning outright Biblical pseudoarchaeology) is that this may not even be the researchers' own fault, as much as that of the very model which they use, and its role in determining what is "acceptable data". ⎪] ⎫] ⎬] Further, the vast tide of "armchair experts" who provide the public with outdated and/or inaccurate information does much to further muddle people's understanding of the question. This is, hopefully, where we come in.

"Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence" [ edit ]

“ ” Dr. Paul L. Maier : Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. Simply because something isn't mentioned doesn't mean it didn't exist.
Michael Shermer: Sorry - in science, we don't allow that form of reasoning. ⎭]

The main issue is "absence of evidence is not evidence of absence" but (and this is the important part) the burden of saying something happened or existed should always be on those who make the claim. David Kusche's criticism regarding the Bermuda Triangle is applicable regarding both the idea of "historical" (however you want to define that) Jesus and any of the Christ Myth theories: ⎮]

Say I claim that a parrot has been kidnapped to teach aliens human language and I challenge you to prove that is not true. You can even use Einstein's Theory of Relativity if you like. There is simply no way to prove such a claim untrue. The burden of proof should be on the people who make these statements, to show where they got their information from, to see if their conclusions and interpretations are valid, and if they have left anything out.

As Price states in his 2011 The Christ-Myth Theory and Its Problems:

The silence of the sources argument at most implies a Bultmannian version of a historical Jesus whose relatively modest activity as an exorcist and faith healer would not have attracted much attention, any more than the secular media cover Peter Popoff today. It does not go all the way to imply there was no historical Jesus.

At best, all the silence of the sources argument shows is that the Gospel-Acts account is more legendary than true historical, akin to the "historical" accounts that portray Lincoln as a beloved President - actual contemporary records show Lincoln was arguably the most hated President of the United States but his assassination on Good Friday resulted in Sunday sermons originally meant to deride him were used to turn retroactively into a kind of "American Moses who brought his people out of slavery but was not allowed to cross over into the Promised Land" ⎯]

In addition to the silence of the sources argument pseudoscience, the majority Christ Myth ideas take any piece of "evidence" they think is relevant and run with it. even in the context of history the concept has no real relevance. If you want to see just how bad Christ Mythism can get (and want to kill a few brain cells in the bargain) watch Zeitgeist everything in that thing is wrong and is the poster child of bad Christ Myth.

That all said, the pro-historical Jesus side has its own set of issues. Because of the way cultures have told their religious and mythic stories over time, and based in no small part on studies of modern "new" religions (especially cult religions) and how they deify their own leaders, ⎰] most scholars of Biblical history believe that the gospels of the Bible are sufficient evidence to say that Jesus, or some human seed for the stories who we may as well tag "Jesus", did exist, and his existence can be assumed from them. ⎱] ⎲] And if such a person existed, it is equally likely that major broad themes are based in reality he likely would have been one of the many teachers or self-proclaimed prophets of the time ⎳] and he probably ticked off the wrong people and found himself dead. ⎱] It is likely the rest is highly embellished, made up, or recycled from other mythology. However, "Some joke that there are as many theories of Jesus as there are scholars to propose them". ⎴] The problem with that line of reasoning is that this argument can also be made for Robin Hood, King Arthur, John Frum, and Ned Lud. and we have reason to doubt they existed as individual people.

As with Christ Mythism the pro-historical Jesus side has its own armchair brigade who produce stuff just as nonsensical.

The poster child of that insanity is the efforts to make Matthew and Luke agree with each other by having such ad hoc nonsense as Publius Sulpicius Quirinius doing a previously unrecorded census (let's just ignore the fact he was fighting some two provinces to the east a minimum of 6-3 BCE with him being Duumvir of the area 6-1 BCE) or moving Herod's the Great's death to 1 BCE as Jack Finegan claims ⎵] . Of course nothing is as bad as the totally idiotic claim 'The existence of Jesus cannot be proven scientifically' ⎶] or that 'history is not a science' which of course ignores the fact that in many universities and colleges either classify history as a social science or have it as part of their social science department as seen with institutions like Michigan State University, San Diego State University, and Radford University to mention a few. Prentice Hall ("nation's leading publisher of middle school and high school textbooks and technology") even printed a book titled History as social science in 1971.

Moreover, some such as Hector Avalos, a professor of Religious Studies at Iowa State University, state that Biblical Studies in its current state doesn't properly follow the historical method, and has major systemic problems so bad that the field needs a total overhaul on how it does things. ⎷] Richard Carrier in his personal blog is even more critical regarding New Testament studies stating the epistemology and methodology being used is of lower quality than that seen anywhere else in the field of history. [note 3]

One need only look at the problems regarding the presentation of Thallus as "evidence" for a historical Jesus ⎸] ⎹] to see that the field does have some methodology issues but then again other fields (like archeology) had similar methodology issues when they were only about 50 years old. ⎺]

In his peer reviewed scholarly published On the Historicity of Jesus Carrier states:

They [historicists ie historical Jesus supporters] have far too quickly assumed that various fundamental conclusions in the field are settled, which in fact are not, such as the dating of New Testament documents (as I discuss in Chapter 7). They have routinely overstated what the evidence can actually prove, conflating conjecture with demonstrable facts almost as often as mythists do, and they lack anything like a coherent methodology (both of which I demonstrated in Proving History) ⎻]

A little later we get this:

As we saw in Chilton's case, and can see in the case of any other scholar claiming to know things about the historical Jesus, many theories of historicity are too speculative, some even more so then theories of myth, and most are much as or nearly so. [. ] That means it's not wise to defend the historicity of Jesus by defending a particular theory of historicity. (sic) ⎼]

That all said, Carrier makes a very important point:

But all that still does not entail the mythicists are right, any more then the similar failing of the mythists entail they are wrong. In only entails that the historicists are wrong to simply dismiss all the challenges posed by the mythicists--because the historicists still have a great deal of work to do that, so far, they are only pretending has been done. But since both houses are in a mess both have a great deal of work to do. Admitting that is the first step toward progress. [sic]

Euhemerism vs Apotheosism [ edit ]

Perhaps the greatest confirmation bias is the idea that the people of the Roman empire in general and those of 1st century Palestine in particular were just like us in terms of their skepticism towards historical and supernatural claims. [note 4]

The reality is quite different. Herodotus (ca. 484–425 BCE), the father of history, had argued that myths were distorted accounts of real historical events. Euhemerus (4th century - 3rd century BCE) took that idea and kicked it up to the next level suggesting that all myths had some basis in historical fact ⎽] "The work is of immense importance, for Euhemerus proposes that myth is history in disguise, that deities were originally living men and women who were elevated to divine status because of heroic feats when alive." ⎾]

Some people confuse Euhemerism with Apotheosism. Apotheosism is the taking of someone clearly historical and turning them into a divine being (such is what was supposedly done with the Emperor of Japan before the end of WWII). Euhemerism assumes that a deity was once an actual person.

The statement "Osiris, Attis, Adonis were men. They died as men they rose as gods." ⎿] captures the Euhemerism mindset perfectly. This is reflected in Clement of Alexandria's triumphant cry in Cohortatio ad gentes of "Those to whom you bow were once men like yourselves". "Thus Euhemerism became a favorite weapon of the Christian polemicists, a weapon they made use of at every turn" ⏀]

In fact, both Herodotus and Euhemerus stated that Zeus had actually been a mortal king (Euhemerus said he was buried on Crete) ⏁] ⏂] ⏃] , "Plutarch (c46 – 120 CE) sought to pin Osiris down as an ancient king of Egypt", ⏂] and Eusebius in the 4th century CE accepted Heracles as a flesh and blood man who by birth was an Egyptian and was a king in Argos ⏄] This assumption of men becoming mythical gods could have been what Justin Martyr really meant when he wrote "When we say that Jesus Christ was produced without sexual union, was crucified and died, and rose again, and ascended to heaven, we propound nothing new or different from what you believe regarding those whom you call the sons of Jupiter." ⏅]

To be fair to those who believed in Euhemerism, they could easily point to the winners of the Olympiads who in Greek times were revered in their home towns as if they were gods ie Apotheosism. Then you have the great feats claimed for these winners who we know actually existed:

  • The jumping pit in the ancient games allowed for 50-foot jumps because the jumpers used weights that they swung to lengthen their jumps. During the 110th Olympiad (c 340 BC), Phayllos of Kroton supposedly overshot the jumping pit. The length of his jump is estimated to be 55 feet for comparison the longest jump record in the modern games is 29 ft 4 1⁄4 in. However, it's possible that the Greeks used multiple jumps. ⏆] Phayllos is also credited with throwing a discus (assumed to be 11 pounds 9 ounces based on the example in the British Museum) 99 feet the modern discus is only 4.4 pounds. ⏇]
  • Milo of Croton is reported to have carried a full grown bull around the stadium which he followed up by killing the animal and eating it in a single day.
  • Poulydamas is said to have killed a full grown lion with his bare hands and stopped a speeding chariot by grabbing it with one hand. ⏈]
  • Ladas of Sparta "either jumped or flew over the stadium" ⏉]

With such feats recorded for people known to have actually lived and some actually done in the Olympiad stadium itself it is small wonder that even the educated could accept the view that Zeus, Osiris, and Hercules were once real people. And once they accepted that then despite the fantastic claims regarding Jesus the go-to for him would have been that he had been a living person and the stories simply exaggerations the very idea that Jesus might be nothing more than hallucination with no real person behind him would never occur to one with such a view. Carrier goes over Euhemerism as Element 45 in On the Historicity of Jesus. ⏊]

As far as skepticism goes, Carrier demonstrated in his 1997 Kooks and Quacks of the Roman Empire: A Look into the World of the Gospels that the people of that time were quite willing to use supernatural explanations to the point "Miracles were also a dime a dozen in this era."

Beyond the bible, the historian Josephus supplies some insights. Writing toward the end of the first century, himself an eye-witness of the Roman destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D, he tells us that the region was filled with "cheats and deceivers claiming divine inspiration" (Jewish War, 2.259-60 Jewish Antiquities, 20.167), entrancing the masses and leading them like sheep, usually to their doom. The most successful of these "tricksters" appears to be "the Egyptian" who led a flock of 30,000 believers around Palestine (Jewish War, 2.261-2 Paul is mistaken for him by a Roman officer in Acts㺕:38). This fellow even claimed he could topple the walls of Jerusalem with a single word (Jewish Antiquities, 20.170), yet it took a massacre at the hands of Roman troops to finally instil doubt in his followers. ⏋]

So you not only have a culture that viewed the deification of once-living people as a normal part of history but they were quick to claim divine inspiration and as mentioned before you had would-be 'Messiahs', 'Sons of Man', 'Righteous Ones', and 'Elect [or Chosen] Ones' (i.e. "christs") showing up all over 1st century Palestine. ⏌] ⏍]

Silence and censorship [ edit ]

Remsburg's list contains 42 historians during or shortly after the supposed times of Jesus who should have, but did not, record anything about Jesus, his apostles, or any supposed acts that we find only in the Bible (which was improved upon in 2012 with the book No Meek Messiah, augmenting the number of "Silent Writers" to 146 ⏎] ). Although it is often used by armchair Christ Myth proponents, it was arguing against the Triumphalist-Jesus of Bethlehem and not against the Reductive-Jesus of Nazareth. Remsberg, in fact, stated "it is not against the man Jesus that I write, but against the Christ Jesus of theology" and felt there was just enough evidence to show that the Triumphalist-Jesus of Bethlehem was a historical myth on "a real event distorted and numberless legends attached until but a small residuum of truth remains and the narrative is essentially false" side of that definition. ⏏] Remsburg was not saying Jesus the man didn't exist but rather the story of Jesus in the Gospels had no more historical reality than the stories of George Washington and the Cherry Tree, Davy Crockett and the Frozen Dawn, Jesse James and the Widow, or the many Penny Dreadful Dime Novels starring people like Buffalo Bill, "Wild Bill" Hickok, and Annie Oakley.

This goes into one of the strangest things about Jesus: the Christians were the ones preserving the records through copying and logically would have preserved references to Jesus. And yet we find here a total lack of material.

The early years of the Roman Empire are one of the best-documented eras of ancient history Jerusalem was a center of education Jesus is claimed even to have had scribes following him and that the population at large was aware of him. ⏐] Yet not one single non-Christian document written before 93 CE mentions any "Jesus", or even the crucifixion of a holy leader of the Jewish people in the 29-36 CE period. ⏑] This includes well-documented records from the Romans regarding criminal activities and crucifixion records. ⏒] "Jesus" (or "Yeshu" or "Yeshua" or "Joshua") was a very common name, with many contemporary troublemaking preachers of that name. [note 5] But even with that in mind, nothing of relevance seems to exist or if it did the Christian copyists didn't see fit to preserve it.

Numerous people who should have written about Jesus who either did not or whom the Christians did not preserve any words include:

  • Philo (ca. 25 BCE - ca. 50 CE): In nearly every list of people who should have mentioned Jesus but didn't, he appears. Philo had strong connection to both the Priesthood in Judea and the Herodian Dynasty even if he himself didn't live in Jerusalem he had communication with those who did. Eusebius in his The History of the Church even claimed Philo not only knew the apostles but met Peter himself in Rome. Philo wrote a five volume account (c40 CE) regarding his embassy to Caligula and the events leading up to it and yet the volume that covered Pontius Pilate's rule of Judea in detail was one of the three volumes not preserved by the Christians, so if Philo did mention Jesus the Christian copyists didn't preserve it.
  • Damis, author of Apollonius of Tyana, a philosopher and mystic who was a contemporary with Jesus.
  • Seneca the Younger's On Superstition (c.40 - c.62), which covered every cult in Rome, was not preserved. The only reason we know it did NOT talk about Christianity at all is because Augustine in the 4th century complained about it. But if the book could have been as early as 40 CE then there would be no reason to expect notice of what at that time would have been a very small group. Despite this, Seneca's lack of mention was sufficiently troublesome to some early Christians that they forged correspondence between Seneca and Paul of Tarsus. Jerome, in de Viris Illustribus 12, and Augustine, in Epistle 153.4 ad Macedonium, both refer to the forged communication.
  • Pliny the Elder, who wrote Natural History (77 CE), the oldest known encyclopedia. It has 37 chapters, spread over 10 books, and mentions hundreds of people (major and minor characters alike) - and yet, it contains no reference to either Christ or Christians. Pliny the Elder also wrote a history of Rome, from 31 CE to the then-present day (sometime before his death in 79 CE) with a volume for each year. This work, however, was not preserved by the Christians.
  • Celsius' The True Logos (2nd-century) is known only through Origen's rebuttal in the 3rd century.
  • Froto, a 2nd century teacher, friend, and correspondence to Emperor Marcus Aurelius (121-180), wrote 'Discourse against the Christians' which is only known through Minucius Felix's Octavius rebuttal of the 3rd century.
  • Juvenal, Martial, Petronius, and Persius, Roman satirists who favored topics similar to Jesus's story.
  • Cassius Dio's Roman History has the sections covering 6 to 2 BC and 30 CE missing.
  • Pausanias, whose massive Guide to Greece includes mentions of thousands of names, including minor Jewish figures in Palestine.
  • Historians Epictetus and Aelius Aristides, who both recorded events and people in Palestine.
  • Clovius Rufus' detailed history of Nero, which would have documented the active persecution of Christians by Nero, was not preserved.
  • Tacitus: the entire section covering 29-31 CE of the Annals: “That the cut is so precise and covers precisely those two years is too improbable to posit as a chance coincidence.” ⏓]
  • Papias (2nd century): Five volume Explanations of the Stories of the Lord (c 130 - c 150) which is known only through all too brief references and quotes. And what we do have makes him come off as very gullible and that he knew of the apostles only via people who had claimed that they knew them. ⏔]
  • Hegesippus: Five volume Memoirs (c 180) that covered various legends about the early churches and apostles as well as a list of the first bishops. As with Papias known only through all too brief references but enough to show that any actual history had been replaced by myth and legend. ⏕]

David Fitzgerald's Ten Beautiful Lies About Jesus: How the myths Christians tell about Jesus Christ suggest Jesus never existed at all goes into the reasons that Seneca the Younger, Gallio, Justus of Tiberias, Nicolaus of Damascus, and Philo of Alexandria should have written about Jesus or the events surrounding his ministry and/or crucifixion if they happened as told in the Gospels.

As Carrier mentions you have this pattern of missing works that raises a few eyebrows when you look at it closely. ⏖]

Five recordings from Library of Congress collections

Performed by the Golden Jubilee Quartet. Recorded by Willis James, 1943.

Sung by Bertha Houston and congregation. An example of a World War II song sung in the Gospel style that was emerging in African American congregations at the time. Recorded by Willis James, 1943.

Sung by the Middle Georgia Four. Recorded by Louis Wade Jones, 1943.

Performed by the Four Brothers. Recorded by Willis James, 1943.

One of the few quartet groups that still performs Gospel a capella.

The precursor to black Gospel music is the African American spiritual, which had already been around for well over a century before Gospel music began its rise to popularity starting in the 1930s. Songs written by African American composers in the decades following emancipation that focused on biblical themes and often drew from spirituals were the source for the development of Gospel. An example is "De Gospel Cars," by the popular composer Sam Lucas.

When many African American communities migrated from rural to urban life during the first half of the twentieth century, they brought their worship culture with them. Echoing the ways of the single-room churches of the agrarian South, the storefront churches of the northern cities became the key setting for the development of Gospel.

Gospel artist Mahalia Jackson. Carl Van Vechten, Photographer. 1962. Prints and Photographs Division, Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-120855

During the 1930s, Gospel music emerged from the coalescing of three types of musical activity: a) the hymn style of Charles Albert Tindley (1851-1933) a Philadelphia minister who composed hymns based on negro spirituals, adding instrumental accompaniments, improvisation and "bluesified" third and seventh intervals b) the minimalist, solo-sung "rural Gospel" tunes that appeared as a counterpart to the rural blues and c) the uninhibited, exuberant worship style of the Holiness-Pentecostal branch of the Christian church.

The shift from spirituals to Gospel is evident in the recordings of African American religious songs recorded in the 1930s and 1940s. The Holloway High School Quartet of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, recorded by John W. Work, III in 1941, provides an example of a traditional spiritual arranged for four-part harmony in "Old ship of Zion," The same group in the same recording session demonstrated the sound of Gospel, as they sang an updated version of an old spiritual, "Daniel saw the stone."

A key figure in the development of Gospel was Thomas A. Dorsey (1899 -1993). Referred to today as the father of Gospel Music, Dorsey pioneered the form in Chicago. Before devoting his career to the development of Gospel, Dorsey, the son of a Georgia Baptist preacher, was a prolific blues and jazz composer and pianist. The energetic rhythms and primal growls of secular music heavily influenced Dorsey's sacred composing style.

From its beginnings, Gospel music challenged the existing church establishment. Black religious leaders originally rejected Dorsey's approach because of its associations with the widely frowned-upon secular music styles of the era such as ragtime, blues, and jazz.

"I know I've got religion," sung by the Golden Jubilee Quartet in 1943, is an example of an old spiritual arranged for Gospel quartet. The use of a rocking beat in Gospel began in the 1940s, as the secular form of what came to be called rhythm and blues was also catching on. An example is "Death comes a knocking," performed by the Four Brothers, also recorded by Willis James in 1943.

Thomas Dorsey teamed up with vocalist Mahalia Jackson (1912 - 1972) who, like him, had been exposed during her formative years to the Baptist church and the sounds of blues artists like Bessie Smith (through an aunt's record collection). Together, Dorsey and Jackson bypassed the establishment and took their new Christian sound to the street corners of Chicago and elsewhere around the country. Jackson sang Dorsey's songs while the composer hawked copies of his sheet music.

Eventually, Dorsey and Jackson's vision spread through their alliance with a few likeminded musical pioneers to form of the National Convention of Gospel Choirs and Choruses, which is still thriving today.

During its early development, Gospel music featured simple piano and organ accompaniment. Male vocal quartets were popular, having emerged under the auspices of African American universities like Fisk and Hampton. Originally these groups sang a cappella spirituals, but started switching to the Gospel repertoire in the 1930s. In the 1940s, the quartets often added a fifth singer and guitar accompaniment.

The sound of slide guitar sound from Hawaii began to influence many genres of American music shortly after Hawaii became a US territory in 1898. A style of Gospel music, called "sacred steel," emerged. View the concert starring Aubrey Ghent playing the sacred steel lap guitar.

Although singers like Aretha Franklin had introduced Gospel style songs to the pop charts with songs like "Think" in 1968, church-centric Gospel music began to cross over into the mainstream following the release in 1969 of the recording of "O Happy Day" by the Edwin Hawkins Singers, a mixed-gender Gospel chorus based in the San Francisco Bay area. The song, which was based on a mid-eighteenth century English hymn sold more than a million copies in two months (well above average for a Gospel recording) and earned its composer, Edwin Hawkins (born 1943) his first of four Grammy Awards.

Since Hawkins, other artists have emerged, taking Gospel music well beyond the black church. Today's Gospel songs are more harmonically complex than their traditional counterparts. Prominent names in the contemporary Gospel field include Andrae Crouch, Take 6, The New York Community Choir and the Cultural Heritage Choir.

These days, Gospel songs are performed as solos or by small or large ensembles, and by men and women of all ages. Both blacks and whites sing the repertoire and the instrumentation possibilities are limitless, ranging from synthesizers and drums to full symphony orchestras. Hear, for example, Marion Williams's 1992 recording of "Amazing Grace,"

The genre continues to make an impact on the popular music today. Its influence can be heard in the work of many secular performers, from the folk stylings of Simon and Garfunkel to the soul outpourings of Adele.

The Statler Brothers

Named after a brand of tissues, the four members of the Statler Brothers did not in fact share a fraternal bond what they did share, however, was the distinction of being one of the most successful vocal harmony groups in the history of country music. Formed in the group's home base of Staunton, Virginia, in 1955, the Statlers were originally a church trio comprised of bass vocalist Harold Reid (born August 21, 1939), baritone Phil Balsley (August 8, 1939), and tenor Lew DeWitt (March 12, 1938). In 1960, Reid's younger brother Don (born June 5, 1945) signed on to take the lead vocal reins, and the quartet performed gospel music under the name the Kingsmen.

After arranging a meeting with the promotional department for a local Johnny Cash concert, the Kingsmen were asked to open the performance. Cash was so impressed that he invited the group to join the tour, and after changing their name to the Statler Brothers, they remained on the road with Cash from 1963 to 1971. The Statlers signed to Columbia in 1964 and a year later scored a huge country and pop hit with DeWitt's "Flowers on the Wall," which also lent its name to their 1966 debut album. 1967's The Statler Brothers Sing the Big Hits held true to its title's promise, generating a pair of Top Ten singles in "Ruthless" and "You Can't Have Your Kate and Edith, Too."

In 1969, the quartet moved to Mercury Records, where they remained for over two decades their first single for the label, 1970's "Bed of Rose's," was a Top Ten hit. In the same year, they held their first Fourth of July picnic for decades, the celebration remained an annual holiday staple, drawing tens of thousands of fans each summer. Throughout the first half of the '70s, the Statlers remained fixtures on the Top 40 charts thanks to a string of nostalgic singles like 1972's "Do You Remember These" and "The Class of '57," 1973's "Carry Me Back," and 1974's "Whatever Happened to Randolph Scott." Their LPs of the period were often concept records: 1972's The Statler Brothers Sing Country Symphonies in E Major was whimsically formatted like an orchestral performance (complete with side-break "intermission"), while 1975's joint release Holy Bible/Old Testament and Holy Bible/New Testament fulfilled the group's long-standing dream to record a gospel project. 1973's Alive at the Johnny Mack Brown High School, on the other hand, was a tongue-in-cheek effort recorded under the group's comic alias Lester "Roadhog" Moran & the Cadillac Cowboys.

The sentimental "I'll Go to My Grave Loving You" was a Top Five hit in 1975 and was included on the Statlers' first best-of compilation, released later in the same year. After a series of Top Ten hits that included 1977's "The Movies" (another recurring Statler theme) and "I Was There," they earned their first chart-topper in 1978 with "Do You Know You Are My Sunshine," from the album Entertainers. On & off the Record. In 1980 the Statler Brothers celebrated their first decade on Mercury with 10th Anniversary, which featured the smash "Charlotte's Web," taken from the film Smokey & the Bandit, Pt. 2, in which the group also co-starred.

After 1982's The Legend Goes On, DeWitt was forced to leave the band as a result of Crohn's disease the illness ultimately killed him on August 15, 1990. The remaining Statlers tapped Jimmy Fortune as his successor, and immediately Fortune earned the group its second number one with his "Elizabeth" (an homage to actress Elizabeth Taylor), from the album Today. Their next two LPs, 1984's Atlanta Blue and 1985's Pardners in Rhyme, were credited simply to the Statlers each record generated a number one hit -- "My Only Love" and "Too Much on My Heart," respectively -- again composed by Fortune. They returned as the Statler Brothers for the 1986 inspirational release Radio Gospel Favorites, followed later in the year by Four for the Show. 1987's Maple Street Memories produced the Top Ten single "Forever" 1989's "More Than a Name on the Wall," which peaked at number six, was their last significant hit. They continued releasing albums, however, and in addition to remaining a popular touring act in the '90s, the Statler Brothers also hosted a long-running variety show on TNN.

In 2002, the group announced their retirement from the road. On October 26, they played their last concert at the 10,000-seat Salem Civic Center in Salem, Virginia, not far from Staunton, where they'd started out and where they continued to maintain their headquarters. Although no longer touring, the group remained active, releasing a new gospel album, Amen, on Crossroads Records and following it in 2003 with a CD/DVD of their final show. In 2006, Mercury released Favorites, a 12-song compilation handpicked by the band's remaining members. The album features only the group's original works recorded after the departure of DeWitt, ranging from 1983 to 1993. Founding member Harold Reid died on April 24, 2020 due to kidney failure he was 80 years old.

Booth Brothers

Brothers Ronnie and Michael Booth started singing with their dad, Ron Sr., in 1990. When he retired in 1998, the boys carried on the tradition with Jim Brady.

The trio has been winning awards ever since, including Trio of the Year, Male Group of the Year, Best Live Performer of the Year and Song of the Year.

Booth Brothers Members:

Former members include Charles Booth, James Booth, Wallace Booth, Ron Booth, sr., Joseph Smith, and Jim Brady.

Booth Brothers Starter Songs:

Hurricane Katrina scattered Morton's congregation at New Orleans' Greater St. Stephen Full Gospel Church in 2005, but he maintained contact with many of his members as he traveled across the country. After the storm, he passed the leadership of the church to his wife, Debra B. Morton, and he started a church in Atlanta: GSS Changing a Generation . Now, he says, Greater St. Stephen is one church in two states. Morton is also a gospel recording artist and an international television preacher.

Founder and senior pastor of Ray of Hope Christian Church in Decatur, Ga., Hale is known as a woman of vision and is recognized for her leadership, integrity and compassion. She established a mentoring program, Elah Pastoral Ministries Inc., in 2004 to assist in the spiritual and practical development of pastors and para-church leaders. In September 2005 she convened her first Women in Ministry Conference , a premier national conference with a focused mission to "develop, coach and mentor Christian women in ministry for the 21st century." Hale has been inducted into the African American Biographies Hall of Fame and the Martin Luther King Board of Preachers of Morehouse College.

“The congregation has heard my entire life.”

Camp Hill, a borough near the western bank of the Susquehanna River, is carved by train tracks that snake behind neighborhoods and connect a meatpacking plant, the corporate offices of Rite Aid pharmacy, and a towering mill that crushes grain into bagged flour. Highways converge here before crossing the river into Harrisburg, the state capital. To the south, the land swells, gently at first and then in sharp inclines as it meets the northern edge of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Strip malls and factories dissolve into countryside where farmers use their road-front real estate to display Bible passages.

Oakwood Baptist Church &ndash one wing a sanctuary, the second a small preschool through kindergarten program &ndash sits on the edge of a neighborhood of modest homes and mature trees. It was a community where Donald Foose was largely unknown when he and his wife began attending services at Oakwood in 2001.

Conrad, the head pastor whose father had preached at Oakwood for three decades before him, was initially unaware that Foose had been a longtime minister and a principal about 15 miles away at Harrisburg Christian School. When Conrad learned that he had a fellow preacher in his congregation, he wondered whether God had given Oakwood a gift. So in 2006, he asked Foose to join him in ministry.

Conrad, in an interview, said Foose paused at the suggestion.

&ldquoHe said, &lsquoI have something in my past. I can't pass a background check,&rsquo&rdquo Conrad recalled.

Foose told him that he had been falsely accused of molesting a teenage girl but decided he would not fight the charges to spare his family the pain of a trial, Conrad said.

In the letter he wrote after leaving Oakwood, Conrad said Foose&rsquos secret had been shared under pastor-member confidentiality, so he did not tell the congregation before it voted to approve Foose&rsquos move to leadership. The two men also had agreed, he said, that Foose would not become involved with Oakwood&rsquos school.

Churchgoers accustomed to Conrad&rsquos sedate sermons now had a second pastor at the other extreme. Foose preached with a passion that bordered on anger, and though some found him harsh, others were moved by the urgency in his tone. Away from the pulpit, Foose was playful, especially with the church&rsquos children. He lowered himself to the little ones&rsquo eye level, roughhoused with the boys, and teased the teen girls. Parents appreciated that he took time to make their children feel welcome at church and considered his doting grandfatherly.

Oakwood later added three more pastors, who led the church with the support of a lay-member board of deacons. Conrad revealed in his letter that other church leaders learned of Foose&rsquos criminal record. But like him, they trusted in a man who they had prayed beside for years. Conrad said that Cliff Karlsen, a deacon who worked as an officer with a nearby police department, said he had checked into Foose&rsquos past and had no problem with Foose staying in ministry. Foose took on greater leadership at Oakwood and occasionally preached at other churches in the area.

Foose ultimately became superintendent of Oakwood&rsquos day school, although it&rsquos unclear exactly when that occurred. No formal announcement was made, and former church leaders either declined to be interviewed or said they didn&rsquot know.

Conrad, in his letter, said Foose started by helping at the school when it was short on money and staff and needed additional adults in the classroom.

&ldquoOnce that door was opened it became impossible for me to shut it,&rdquo Conrad wrote. He said he asked Foose to keep his distance from the school&rsquos children but that Foose ignored him.

Conrad described church leaders just once grappling with the legal implications of allowing a man convicted of sexual abuse to be involved in their school. In an interview, he said the conversations happened when Pennsylvania legislators strengthened the state&rsquos laws following the child sex abuse conviction of Penn State assistant football coach Jerry Sandusky. Central among the legislation that went into effect in 2014 and 2015 was a mandate that virtually anyone working with children in the state, including volunteers, had to undergo criminal background checks.

Pennsylvania, even before then, had required school employees to get clearances and to complete a form declaring whether they had been convicted of a host of sex-related crimes, including Foose&rsquos. It is unclear whether those laws applied to Foose, who was employed by the church while holding responsibilities with the school. But even with the expansion of the laws, Oakwood&rsquos leaders didn&rsquot act.

Conrad said a small group that included Karlsen, Foose, and a member of the congregation who was an attorney reviewed the new legislation and noted that &lsquoPastor&rsquo was not listed among the professions requiring background checks. He said the men discussed finding Foose a new office outside of the church, then decided it wasn&rsquot necessary, instead telling Foose that he shouldn&rsquot be involved in any of the church&rsquos children&rsquos programs.

&ldquoHe was supposed to slip in and out of the office without the kids even knowing he was in the building,&rdquo Conrad said. &ldquoCliff (Karlsen) said it's best if the kids don't even know he's in the building.&rdquo

Karlsen, who was chairman of the board of deacons at the time that the new laws were passed, declined to be interviewed for this story. In an email, he blamed Conrad for hiring Foose but acknowledged that he later looked into Foose&rsquos record and endorsed him as pastor. He said he believed then that Foose had been wrongly convicted.

&ldquoThe incident happened over twenty years ago his family has forgiven him and moved on, and most importantly, he has repented and been forgiven by God,&rdquo Karlsen wrote.

Meanwhile, Foose presented himself to his congregation as an open book. In a 2014 interview on a regional Southern Baptist association's website, he was asked to share something about himself that would surprise his flock.

&ldquoThe congregation,&rdquo he said, &ldquohas heard my entire life.&rdquo

Watch the video: Ray Charles - Song For You Live at Montreux 1997 (January 2022).